# Create a model or simulation for an engineering product, process, or idea.

## Definition

Creation of a model must include a description of a pattern, plan, or representation and be designed to show a main object or workings of an object, system, or concept. The process used for the creation of a model should be based on one of the following model types and procedures:- Physical model type—design a model, determine the scale, choose and obtain materials, and assemble
- Conceptual model type—present a clearly communicated story or series of images of the phenomenon
- Mathematical model type—determine the relationship between variables or procedural steps and translate them into mathematical symbols

## Process/Skill Questions

- How does one determine what software is best suited for one's model or simulation?
- How does one determine the data to input into one's model or simulation?
- How can the results of the model/simulation affect a final product?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 10.1

The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams including setting rules and goals for group work such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.
- Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
- Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
- Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
- Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
- Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.
- Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.

### 10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

### 11.1

The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
- Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
- Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
- Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
- Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

### 12.1

The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
- Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
- Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

### 12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.

- Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
- Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

## Mathematics

### AFDA.1

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic function families and their characteristics. Key concepts include

- domain and range;
- intervals in which the function is increasing or decreasing;
- absolute maxima and minima;
- zeros;
- intercepts;
- values of a function for elements in its domain;
- connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
- end behavior; and
- vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

### AFDA.2

The student will use knowledge of transformations to write an equation, given the graph of a linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic function .

### AFDA.3

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems using models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

### AFDA.4

The student will use multiple representations of functions for analysis, interpretation, and prediction.

### AII.3

The student will solve

- absolute value linear equations and inequalities;
- quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers;
- equations containing rational algebraic expressions; and
- equations containing radical expressions.

### AII.6

For absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic functions, the student will

- recognize the general shape of function families; and
- use knowledge of transformations to convert between equations and the corresponding graph of functions.

### AII.7

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic function families algebraically and graphically. Key concepts include< /br>

- domain, range, and continuity;
- intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing;
- extrema;
- zeros;
- intercepts;
- values of a function for elements in its domain;
- connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
- end behavior;
- vertical and horizontal asymptotes;
- inverse of a function; and
- composition of functions algebraically and graphically.

### AII.8

The student will investigate and describe the relationships among solutions of an equation, zeros of a function,

*x-*intercepts of a graph, and factors of a polynomial expression.### AII.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

### AII.10

The student will represent, create, and solve problems, including practical problems, involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

### COM.1

The student will design and apply computer programs to solve practical problems in mathematics arising from business and applications in mathematics.

### COM.4

The student will design an algorithm to solve a given problem.

### COM.6

The student will translate mathematical expressions into programming expressions by declaring variables, writing assignment statements, and using the order of operations.

### COM.8

The student will implement conditional statements that include “if/then” statements, “if/then/else” statements, case statements, and Boolean logic.

### COM.14

The student will select and implement appropriate data structures, including arrays (one- and/or two-dimensional) and objects.

### COM.15

The student will define and use appropriate variable data types that include integer, real (fixed and scientific notation), character, string, Boolean and object.

### MA.2

The student will investigate and identify the characteristics of exponential and logarithmic functions to graph the function, solve equations, and solve practical problems.

### MA.3

The student will apply compositions of functions and inverses of functions to practical situations and investigate and verify the domain and range of resulting functions.

### MA.7

The student will perform operations with vectors in the coordinate plane and solve practical problems using vectors.

### MA.10

The student will use parametric equations to model and solve practical problems.

### MA.11

The student will use matrices to organize data and will add and subtract matrices, multiply matrices, multiply matrices by a scalar, and use matrices to solve systems of equations.