# Create an algorithm to solve an engineering problem.

## Definition

Creation of an algorithm should express a logical process for solving an engineering problem or a step-by-step thought process and should result in one or more of the following algorithm types:- Visual—flow chart
- Written—pseudo code
- Mathematical—formula-based

## Process/Skill Questions

- How can one conduct a trace using test cases?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 10.1

The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams including setting rules and goals for group work such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.
- Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
- Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
- Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
- Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
- Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.
- Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.

### 10.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.

- Engage in writing as a recursive process.
- Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
- Adjust writing content, technique, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.
- Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
- Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
- Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
- Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and sufficient evidence from credible sources as support.
- Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
- Show relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence and include a conclusion that follows logically from the information presented.
- Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
- Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.
- Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
- Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
- Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

### 10.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

- Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
- Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
- Distinguish between active and passive voice.
- Use colons correctly.
- Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.

### 11.1

The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
- Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
- Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
- Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
- Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

### 11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.

- Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
- Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
- Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
- Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
- Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.
- Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.
- Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.
- Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

### 11.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.

- Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
- Use verbals and verbal phrases correctly to achieve sentence conciseness and variety.
- Distinguish between active and passive voice.

### 12.1

The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
- Credit information sources.
- Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
- Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
- Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

### 12.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.

- Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
- Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
- Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
- Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
- Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
- Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
- Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
- Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.
- Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.

### 12.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.

- Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
- Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.
- Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

## Mathematics

### AFDA.1

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic function families and their characteristics. Key concepts include

- domain and range;
- intervals in which the function is increasing or decreasing;
- absolute maxima and minima;
- zeros;
- intercepts;
- values of a function for elements in its domain;
- connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
- end behavior; and
- vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

### AFDA.3

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems using models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

### AFDA.4

The student will use multiple representations of functions for analysis, interpretation, and prediction.

### AII.6

For absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic functions, the student will

- recognize the general shape of function families; and
- use knowledge of transformations to convert between equations and the corresponding graph of functions.

### AII.7

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic function families algebraically and graphically. Key concepts include< /br>

- domain, range, and continuity;
- intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing;
- extrema;
- zeros;
- intercepts;
- values of a function for elements in its domain;
- connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
- end behavior;
- vertical and horizontal asymptotes;
- inverse of a function; and
- composition of functions algebraically and graphically.

### AII.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

### AII.10

The student will represent, create, and solve problems, including practical problems, involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

### COM.4

The student will design an algorithm to solve a given problem.

### COM.5

The student will divide a given problem into modules by task and implement the solution.

### COM.6

The student will translate mathematical expressions into programming expressions by declaring variables, writing assignment statements, and using the order of operations.

### COM.8

The student will implement conditional statements that include “if/then” statements, “if/then/else” statements, case statements, and Boolean logic.

### COM.9

The student will implement pre-defined algorithms, including sort routines, search routines, and simple animation routines.

### COM.13

The student will implement various mechanisms for performing iteration with an algorithm

### COM.14

The student will select and implement appropriate data structures, including arrays (one- and/or two-dimensional) and objects.

### COM.15

The student will define and use appropriate variable data types that include integer, real (fixed and scientific notation), character, string, Boolean and object.

### DM.5*

The student will analyze and describe the issue of fair division in discrete and continuous cases.

### DM.8

The student will describe and apply sorting algorithms and coding algorithms used in sorting, processing, and communicating information.

### DM.10

The student will use algorithms to schedule tasks in order to determine a minimum project time. The algorithms will include critical path analysis, the list-processing algorithm, and student-created algorithms.

### MA.2

The student will investigate and identify the characteristics of exponential and logarithmic functions to graph the function, solve equations, and solve practical problems.

### MA.3

The student will apply compositions of functions and inverses of functions to practical situations and investigate and verify the domain and range of resulting functions.

### MA.7

The student will perform operations with vectors in the coordinate plane and solve practical problems using vectors.

### MA.10

The student will use parametric equations to model and solve practical problems.

### MA.11

The student will use matrices to organize data and will add and subtract matrices, multiply matrices, multiply matrices by a scalar, and use matrices to solve systems of equations.

### MA.14

The student will use mathematical induction to prove formulas and mathematical statements.