# Evaluate the test results.

## Definition

Evaluation should include- determining the degree to which the solution meets the objective stated in the design brief
- interpreting data to determine whether the test results demonstrated by the model are repeatable and reliably consistent
- weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the solution, considering its costs, resources required, time required, impacts, plausibility, and ethics involved
- identifying areas that need improvement.

## Process/Skill Questions

- Why is it important to know whether the test results demonstrated by the model are repeatable and reliably consistent?
- Why is it important to carefully consider the disadvantages of the solution before attempting to implement it, even when the disadvantages are greatly outweighed by the advantages?
- How does one determine the true cost of one's solution?
- What are the factors affecting cost?
- What is the difference between efficiency and effectiveness?
- How does one validate one's data and results?
- Why is it important to consider how one's solution might affect the environment?
- Why is it crucial to consider the ethics of the potential solution?
- What kind of criteria might one use to determine the degree to which the solution meets the objective stated in the design brief?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

- Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
- Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
- Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
- Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
- Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
- Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
- Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
- Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

### 10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

### 11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.

- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

## Mathematics

### PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

### PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

### PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

### PS.4*

The student will analyze scatterplots to identify and describe the relationship between two variables, using shape; strength of relationship; clusters; positive, negative, or no association; outliers; and influential points.

### PS.5

The student will determine and interpret linear correlation, use the method of least squares regression to model the linear relationship between two variables, and use the residual plot to assess linearity.

### PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

### PS.8*

The student will describe the methods of data collection in a census, sample survey, experiment, and observational study and identify an appropriate method of solution for a given problem setting.

### PS.17

The student, given data from a large sample, will determine and interpret point estimates and confidence intervals for parameters. The parameters will include proportion and mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired), and slope of a least-squares regression line.

### PS.18

The student will apply and interpret the logic of an appropriate hypothesis-testing procedure. Tests will include large sample tests for proportion, mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired); chi-squared tests for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence; and slope of a least-squares regression line.

### PS.19

The student will identify the meaning of sampling distribution with reference to random variable, sampling statistic, and parameter and explain the Central Limit Theorem. This will include sampling distribution of a sample proportion, a sample mean, a difference between two sample proportions, and a difference between two sample means.

### PS.20

The student will identify properties of a

*t-*distribution and apply t-distributions to single-sample and two-sample (independent and matched pairs)*t-*procedures.## Science

### PH.2

The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include

- a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;
- relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;
- the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;
- interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; and
- situations with vector quantities are analyzed utilizing trigonometric or graphical methods.