# Apply the techniques and benefits of sketching.

## Definition

Application of the techniques should include- freehand sketching
- isometric sketching
- orthographic/multiview sketching
- computer-aided sketching.

- provides a pictorial or graphical presentation of the design solution
- stimulates collaboration
- documents the thinking process.

## Process/Skill Questions

- How does sketching help formulate one's ideas?
- What is an isometric drawing? An orthographic drawing?
- How does a sketch differ from a drawing?
- How is a technical drawing/sketch different from an artistic drawing/sketch?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

- Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
- Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
- Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
- Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
- Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
- Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
- Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
- Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

### 10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

### 11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.

- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

## Mathematics

### G.3

The student will solve problems involving symmetry and transformation. This will include

- investigating and using formulas for determining distance, midpoint, and slope;
- applying slope to verify and determine whether lines are parallel or perpendicular;
- investigating symmetry and determining whether a figure is symmetric with respect to a line or a point; and
- determining whether a figure has been translated, reflected, rotated, or dilated, using coordinate methods.

### G.4

The student will construct and justify the constructions of

- a line segment congruent to a given line segment;
- the perpendicular bisector of a line segment;
- a perpendicular to a given line from a point not on the line;
- a perpendicular to a given line at a given point on the line;
- the bisector of a given angle,
- an angle congruent to a given angle;
- a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line; and
- an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

### G.14

The student will apply the concepts of similarity to two- or three-dimensional geometric figures. This will include

- comparing ratios between lengths, perimeters, areas, and volumes of similar figures;
- determining how changes in one or more dimensions of a figure affect area and/or volume of the figure;
- determining how changes in area and/or volume of a figure affect one or more dimensions of the figure; and
- solving problems, including practical problems, about similar geometric figures.

## Science

### PH.2

The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include

- a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;
- relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;
- the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;
- interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; and
- situations with vector quantities are analyzed utilizing trigonometric or graphical methods.