Research an engineering achievement.
- answer who, what, where, and when
- justify the achievement, answering why
- document sources (e.g., trade journals, newspapers, periodicals, books, Internet).
- How does one conduct an electronic search for information?
- Why is it important to cite/document one's resources?
Related Standards of Learning
- Verify the validity and accuracy of all information.
- Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to support claims and introduce counterclaims.
- Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased information using a standard method of documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
- Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.
- Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.
- Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.
- Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counter claims and to support claims.
- Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.
- Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
- Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
- Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
- Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.
History and Social Science
- planning inquiries by synthesizing information from diverse primary and secondary sources;
- analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
- comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
- evaluating critically the quality, accuracy, and validity of information to determine misconceptions, fact and opinion, and bias;
- constructing informed, analytic arguments using evidence from multiple sources to introduce and support substantive and significant claims;
- explaining how cause-and-effect relationships impact political and economic events;
- taking knowledgeable, constructive action, individually and collaboratively, to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
- using a decision-making model to analyze the costs and benefits of a specific choice, considering incentives and possible consequences;
- applying civic virtues and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
- communicating conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from multiple sources and citing specific sources.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the impact of the Age of Exploration by
- describing the characteristics of early exploration and evaluating the impact of European settlement in the Americas; and
- analyzing the cultural interactions among American Indians, Europeans, and Africans.
The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by
- explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians;
- analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;
- examining the contributions of new immigrants and evaluating the challenges they faced, including anti-immigration legislation;
- analyzing the impact of prejudice and discrimination, including “Jim Crow” laws, the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, and the practice of eugenics in Virginia;
- evaluating and explaining the social and cultural impact of industrialization, including rapid urbanization; and
- evaluating and explaining the economic outcomes and the political, cultural, and social developments of the Progressive Movement and the impact of its legislation.
The student will apply social science skills to understand key events during the 1920s and 1930s by
- analyzing how popular culture evolved and challenged traditional values;
- assessing and explaining the economic causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929;
- explaining the causes of the Great Depression and its impact on the American people; and
- evaluating and explaining how Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal measures addressed the Great Depression and expanded the government’s role in the economy.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, political, and cultural movements and changes in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century by
- explaining the factors that led to United States expansion;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver W. Hill, Sr., and how Virginia responded to the decision;
- explaining how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had an impact on all Americans;
- analyzing changes in immigration policy and the impact of increased immigration;
- evaluating and explaining the foreign and domestic policies pursued by the American government after the Cold War;
- explaining how scientific and technological advances altered American lives; and
- evaluating and explaining the changes that occurred in American culture.
The student will apply social science skills to understand political and social conditions in the United States during the early twenty-first century by
- assessing the development of and changes in domestic policies, with emphasis on the impact of the role the United States Supreme Court played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;
- evaluating and explaining the changes in foreign policies and the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism, with emphasis on the American response to 9/11 (September 11, 2001);
- evaluating the evolving and changing role of government, including its role in the American economy; and
- explaining scientific and technological changes and evaluating their impact on American culture
- synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about the world’s countries, cities, and environments;
- using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world regions;
- creating, comparing, and interpreting maps, charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of world regions;
- evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
- using maps and other visual images to compare and contrast historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
- explaining indirect cause-and-effect relationships to understand geospatial connections;
- analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
- investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the impact of the European Age of Exploration by
- explaining the political and economic goals of European exploration and colonization;
- describing the geographic expansion into Africa, Asia, and the Americas;
- comparing and contrasting the social and cultural influences of European settlement on Africa, Asia, and the Americas;
- analyzing how competition for colonies changed the economic system of Europe; and
- defining and describing how the Scientific Revolution led to social and technological changes that influenced the European view of the world.
The student will apply social science skills to understand global interactions between 1800 to about 1900 by
- locating the United States of America, describing its expansion between 1776 and 1900, and assessing its changing role in the world;
- locating Latin America, explaining the causes and effects of the revolutions, with emphasis on the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simón Bolívar, and identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America;
- describing the political and social challenges faced by Latin American nations, with emphasis on the Monroe Doctrine;
- assessing the impact of European colonization and imperialism on Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and Australia; and
- analyzing the relationship between industrialization, imperialism, and nationalism.
The student will apply social science skills to understand of the political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of independence movements and development efforts by
- describing the struggles for self-rule, including Gandhi’s leadership in India and the development of India’s democracy;
- describing Africa’s independence movements, including Jomo Kenyatta’s leadership of Kenya and Nelson Mandela’s role in South Africa; and
- describing the end of the mandate system and the creation of states in the Middle East, including the roles of Golda Meir and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the global changes during the early twenty-first century by
- identifying contemporary political issues, with emphasis on migrations of refugees and others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact of technology, including the role of social media and chemical and biological technologies;
- assessing the link between economic and political freedom;
- describing economic interdependence, including the rise of multinational corporations, international organizations, and trade agreements; and
- analyzing the increasing impact of terrorism.