Explain the relationship between production technology and the economy.
Explanation should include some effects that technological change (i.e., invention and innovation) in production has had on global economies, and vice versa. Economic needs drive production technologies through demand. Market needs drive advances in production technology and the creation of new products and services.
Explanation should also include a discussion of the sustainability of various technological changes.
- Are there examples where initial change was not sustained? If so, what was the cause?
- What is economics?
- What is the gross domestic product?
- How have consumers affected manufacturing in the past and in what ways do they affect it now?
- How has the economy affected production in your local area?
Related Standards of Learning
- Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
- Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
- Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
- Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
- Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
- Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
- Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
- Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.
- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.
- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).
History and Social Science
The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by
- defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
- examining different perspectives on the role of government;
- describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
- describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
- investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
- analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
- devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by
- describing the provision of government goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;
- describing government’s establishment and maintenance of the rules and institutions in which markets operate, including the establishment and enforcement of property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, environmental protection, and competition in the marketplace;
- investigating and describing the types and purposes of taxation that are used by local, state, and federal governments to pay for services provided by the government;
- analyzing how Congress can use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy;
- describing the effects of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy on price stability, employment, and the economy; and
- evaluating the trade-offs in government decisions.
The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by
- explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians;
- analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;
- examining the contributions of new immigrants and evaluating the challenges they faced, including anti-immigration legislation;
- analyzing the impact of prejudice and discrimination, including “Jim Crow” laws, the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, and the practice of eugenics in Virginia;
- evaluating and explaining the social and cultural impact of industrialization, including rapid urbanization; and
- evaluating and explaining the economic outcomes and the political, cultural, and social developments of the Progressive Movement and the impact of its legislation.
The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by
- synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in world history;
- using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world history;
- interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in world history;
- evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
- comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in world history;
- explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impacted people, places, and events in world history;
- analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
- identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizens and ethical use of materials and intellectual property; and
- investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the Byzantine Empire and Eastern Europe from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by
- explaining the influence of geography on the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and describing the Byzantine Empire in time and place;
- describing Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy;
- characterizing the role Byzantine art and architecture played in the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions;
- explaining the disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church; and
- analyzing and explaining the influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe.