Identify the primary processes used to obtain and produce industrial materials.
- contain the methods (e.g., mining, drilling, in situ, and harvesting) of obtaining material resources and how these materials are converted into standard or specialty stock
- include the concept that some materials/processes are relatively rare/difficult, influencing choices
- consider the sustainability and/or rate of depletion of natural resources.
- Why do manufacturers not always choose the best materials (technologically speaking)?
- What is a raw material?
- How are natural resources converted into raw materials?
- What are the applications of thermal, chemical, and mechanical processes in converting natural resources?
- What is standard stock?
- How does the cost of materials affect consumers?
- What are concerns surrounding the depletion of natural resources?
Related Standards of Learning
- Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
- Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
- Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
- Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
- Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
- Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
- Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
- Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.
- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.
- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).
History and Social Science
The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by
- defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
- examining different perspectives on the role of government;
- describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
- describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
- investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
- analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
- devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by
- describing the provision of government goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;
- describing government’s establishment and maintenance of the rules and institutions in which markets operate, including the establishment and enforcement of property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, environmental protection, and competition in the marketplace;
- investigating and describing the types and purposes of taxation that are used by local, state, and federal governments to pay for services provided by the government;
- analyzing how Congress can use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy;
- describing the effects of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy on price stability, employment, and the economy; and
- evaluating the trade-offs in government decisions.
The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by
- explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians;
- analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;
- examining the contributions of new immigrants and evaluating the challenges they faced, including anti-immigration legislation;
- analyzing the impact of prejudice and discrimination, including “Jim Crow” laws, the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, and the practice of eugenics in Virginia;
- evaluating and explaining the social and cultural impact of industrialization, including rapid urbanization; and
- evaluating and explaining the economic outcomes and the political, cultural, and social developments of the Progressive Movement and the impact of its legislation.
The student will apply social science skills to understand key events during the 1920s and 1930s by
- analyzing how popular culture evolved and challenged traditional values;
- assessing and explaining the economic causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929;
- explaining the causes of the Great Depression and its impact on the American people; and
- evaluating and explaining how Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal measures addressed the Great Depression and expanded the government’s role in the economy.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, political, and cultural movements and changes in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century by
- explaining the factors that led to United States expansion;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver W. Hill, Sr., and how Virginia responded to the decision;
- explaining how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had an impact on all Americans;
- analyzing changes in immigration policy and the impact of increased immigration;
- evaluating and explaining the foreign and domestic policies pursued by the American government after the Cold War;
- explaining how scientific and technological advances altered American lives; and
- evaluating and explaining the changes that occurred in American culture.
The student will apply social science skills to understand political and social conditions in the United States during the early twenty-first century by
- assessing the development of and changes in domestic policies, with emphasis on the impact of the role the United States Supreme Court played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;
- evaluating and explaining the changes in foreign policies and the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism, with emphasis on the American response to 9/11 (September 11, 2001);
- evaluating the evolving and changing role of government, including its role in the American economy; and
- explaining scientific and technological changes and evaluating their impact on American culture
- synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about the world’s countries, cities, and environments;
- using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world regions;
- creating, comparing, and interpreting maps, charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of world regions;
- evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
- using maps and other visual images to compare and contrast historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
- explaining indirect cause-and-effect relationships to understand geospatial connections;
- analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
- investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
The student will analyze how physical and ecological processes shape Earth’s surface by
- explaining regional climatic patterns and weather phenomena and their effects on people and places;
- describing how humans influence the environment and are influenced by it; and
- explaining how technology affects one's ability to modify the environment and adapt to it.
The student will apply the concept of a region by
- explaining how characteristics of regions have led to regional labels;
- describing how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants;
- analyzing how cultural characteristics, including the world’s major languages, ethnicities, and religions, link or divide regions;
- explaining how different cultures use maps and place names to reflect their regional perspectives; and
- developing and refining mental maps of world regions.