# Describe current, including its unit of measurement and symbol.

## Definition

Description should include- differentiating between direct current (DC), alternating current, and pulsating direct current (PDC), including symbols and units of measurement
- explaining that current is measured in amperes (amps)
- identifying the symbol for current (I)
- defining
*electrical current*as the motion of free electrons - explaining the usual sine waveform and periodic changes in direction of alternating current.

## Process/Skill Questions

- What is the unit of measurement for current?
- What letter symbol is used to represent current?
- In which direction does current flow? Why?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.

- Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
- Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
- Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
- Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
- Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
- Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
- Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
- Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

### 10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.

- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

### 11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.

- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

### 12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.

- Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
- Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

## History and Social Science

### VUS.8

The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by

- explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians;
- analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;
- examining the contributions of new immigrants and evaluating the challenges they faced, including anti-immigration legislation;
- analyzing the impact of prejudice and discrimination, including “Jim Crow” laws, the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, and the practice of eugenics in Virginia;
- evaluating and explaining the social and cultural impact of industrialization, including rapid urbanization; and
- evaluating and explaining the economic outcomes and the political, cultural, and social developments of the Progressive Movement and the impact of its legislation.

## Mathematics

### A.4

The student will solve

- multistep linear and quadratic equations in one variables algebraically;
- quadratic equations in one variables algebraically;
- literal equations for a specified variable;
- systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and graphically; and
- practical problems involving equations and systems of equations.

### A.8

The student, given a situation in a real-world context, will analyze a relation to determine whether a direct or inverse variation exists, and represent a direct variation algebraically and graphically and an inverse variation algebraically.

### AII.3

The student will solve

- absolute value linear equations and inequalities;
- quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers;
- equations containing rational algebraic expressions; and
- equations containing radical expressions.

### AII.10

The student will represent, create, and solve problems, including practical problems, involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

### T.3

The student, given one of the six trigonometric functions in standard form, will

- state the domain and the range of the function;
- determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, vertical shift, and asymptotes;
- sketch the graph of the function by using transformations for at least a two-period interval; and
- investigate the effect of changing the parameters in a trigonometric function on the graph of the function.

## Science

### PH.11

The student will investigate and understand how to diagram, construct, and analyze basic electrical circuits and explain the function of various circuit components. Key concepts include

- Ohm’s law;
- series, parallel, and combined circuits;
- electrical power; and
- alternating and direct currents.