# CTE Resource Center - Verso - Forensic Technology Task 1505146209

CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Defend a scientific argument.

Definition

Defense should include
  • the formation of a hypothesis
  • a summary and explanation of the data
  • a list of the instrumentation and documentation used
  • a presentation of the evidence
  • an appropriate response to criticism of the analysis.

Process/Skill Questions

  • Why is it important to document procedures when conducting experiments?
  • What role does communication play in the defense of a scientific argument?
  • What consequences would result from inaccurate instrumentation?

Related Standards of Learning

English

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
  3. Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  5. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.
  6. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
  2. Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
  3. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

12.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
  3. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  6. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.
  9. Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.

History and Social Science

VUS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in Virginia and United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in Virginia and United States history;
  4. constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and ethical use of material and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

Mathematics

PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

PS.4*

The student will analyze scatterplots to identify and describe the relationship between two variables, using shape; strength of relationship; clusters; positive, negative, or no association; outliers; and influential points.

PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

PS.10*

The student will plan and conduct a well-designed experiment. The plan will address control, randomization, replication, blinding, and measurement of experimental error.

PS.17

The student, given data from a large sample, will determine and interpret point estimates and confidence intervals for parameters. The parameters will include proportion and mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired), and slope of a least-squares regression line.

PS.18

The student will apply and interpret the logic of an appropriate hypothesis-testing procedure. Tests will include large sample tests for proportion, mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired); chi-squared tests for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence; and slope of a least-squares regression line.

Science

BIO.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;
  2. hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;
  3. variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;
  4. graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;
  5. conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;
  6. sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
  7. validity of data is determined;
  8. chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;
  9. appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
  10. research utilizes scientific literature;
  11. differentiation is made among a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;
  12. alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and
  13. current applications of biological concepts are used.

CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include
  1. designated laboratory techniques;
  2. safe use of chemicals and equipment;
  3. proper response to emergency situations;
  4. manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
  5. accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
  6. mathematical and procedural error analysis;
  7. mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
  8. use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
  9. construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
  10. the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

PH.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design and product design processes. Key concepts include
  1. the components of a system are defined;
  2. instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;
  3. information is recorded and presented in an organized format;
  4. the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;
  5. the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;
  6. models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and
  7. appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.

PH.2

The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include
  1. a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;
  2. relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;
  3. the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;
  4. interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; and
  5. situations with vector quantities are analyzed utilizing trigonometric or graphical methods.

Other Related Standards

ITEEA National Standards

13. Assess the Impact of Products and Systems

 

TSA Competitive Events

Debating Technological Issues