# Describe the applied skill of deductive reasoning in forensic analysis.

## Definition

Description should include the use of logic to observe, evaluate, and develop conclusions based on critical data analysis.## Process/Skill Questions

- What are ways to improve observational skills?
- What different factors can affect the way we make observations?
- Why are observation skills important to forensic science?
- How might individuals see a crime scene differently?

## Related Standards of Learning

## History and Social Science

### VUS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

- synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history;
- using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in Virginia and United States history;
- interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in Virginia and United States history;
- constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources;
- comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history;
- explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history;
- analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
- identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and ethical use of material and intellectual property; and
- investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

## Mathematics

### DM.9*

The student will select, justify, and apply an appropriate technique to solve a logic problem.

### G.1

The student will use deductive reasoning to construct and judge the validity of a logical argument consisting of a set of premises and a conclusion. This will include

- identifying the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of a conditional statement;
- translating a short verbal argument into symbolic form; and
- determining the validity of a logical argument.

### PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

### PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

### PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

### PS.4*

The student will analyze scatterplots to identify and describe the relationship between two variables, using shape; strength of relationship; clusters; positive, negative, or no association; outliers; and influential points.

### PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

### PS.18

The student will apply and interpret the logic of an appropriate hypothesis-testing procedure. Tests will include large sample tests for proportion, mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired); chi-squared tests for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence; and slope of a least-squares regression line.

## Science

### BIO.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;
- hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;
- variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;
- graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;
- conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;
- sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
- validity of data is determined;
- chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;
- appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
- research utilizes scientific literature;
- differentiation is made among a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;
- alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and
- current applications of biological concepts are used.

### CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include

- designated laboratory techniques;
- safe use of chemicals and equipment;
- proper response to emergency situations;
- manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
- accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
- mathematical and procedural error analysis;
- mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
- use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
- construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
- the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

### PH.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design and product design processes. Key concepts include

- the components of a system are defined;
- instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;
- information is recorded and presented in an organized format;
- the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;
- the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;
- models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and
- appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.