# Demonstrate the key steps of the scientific method in forensic analysis by collecting and preserving evidence from a crime scene.

## Definition

Demonstration of the scientific method should include- observation and description
- hypothesis
- experimentation (i.e., testing the hypothesis)
- collection and analysis of data
- conclusion.

## Process/Skill Questions

- Why is it important to measure the results of a hypothesis?
- What senses are used in observation?
- What role does perception play in observation?
- Why are analytical skills so important in crime scene observation?
- How does the scientific method affect the introduction of evidence in a legal proceeding?

## Related Standards of Learning

## Mathematics

### PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

### PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

### PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

### PS.4*

The student will analyze scatterplots to identify and describe the relationship between two variables, using shape; strength of relationship; clusters; positive, negative, or no association; outliers; and influential points.

### PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

### PS.8*

The student will describe the methods of data collection in a census, sample survey, experiment, and observational study and identify an appropriate method of solution for a given problem setting.

### PS.10*

The student will plan and conduct a well-designed experiment. The plan will address control, randomization, replication, blinding, and measurement of experimental error.

### PS.17

The student, given data from a large sample, will determine and interpret point estimates and confidence intervals for parameters. The parameters will include proportion and mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired), and slope of a least-squares regression line.

### PS.18

The student will apply and interpret the logic of an appropriate hypothesis-testing procedure. Tests will include large sample tests for proportion, mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired); chi-squared tests for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence; and slope of a least-squares regression line.

## Science

### BIO.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;
- hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;
- variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;
- graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;
- conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;
- sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
- validity of data is determined;
- chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;
- appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
- research utilizes scientific literature;
- differentiation is made among a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;
- alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and
- current applications of biological concepts are used.

### CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include

- designated laboratory techniques;
- safe use of chemicals and equipment;
- proper response to emergency situations;
- manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
- accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
- mathematical and procedural error analysis;
- mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
- use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
- construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
- the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

### PH.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design and product design processes. Key concepts include

- the components of a system are defined;
- instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;
- information is recorded and presented in an organized format;
- the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;
- the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;
- models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and
- appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.

### PH.2

The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include

- a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;
- relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;
- the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;
- interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; and
- situations with vector quantities are analyzed utilizing trigonometric or graphical methods.