Describe pain treatment options available to various populations of patients.
Description should include
- special populations in pain management, such as palliative/end-of-life care patients, patients with cancer, pediatric patients, and geriatric populations
- non-pharmacologic treatment of pain, including active care and self-care, evidence- and non-evidence-based approaches, and multimodal pain management
- non-opioid pharmacologic management of pain
- the challenges in discussing the psychological aspects of pain and the role of the central nervous system
- adverse drug event prevention for all pain medications
- the roles in an interdisciplinary pain management team
- the significance of issues such as anxiety, depression, and sleep deprivation in pain management
- the placebo effect
- goals and expectations in the treatment of pain, based on diagnosis and pain continuum
- when to make a pain referral and to whom.
- What pain management resources are available for special populations?
- What are alternative forms of pain management?
- What role does the mind play in pain management?
Related Standards of Learning
The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
- Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
- Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
- Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
- Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information.
- Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
- Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
- Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.