Identify the major structures and functions of the musculoskeletal system.
DefinitionIdentification should include
- two divisions of the skeleton
- types, structures, functions, and formations of bones
- bone marrow, cranial sinuses, and cartilage
- number of vertebrae in each segment of the vertebral column
- difference between the male and female pelvis
- changes in the skeleton across the life span
- basic unit of muscle tissue
- three types of muscle tissue, their characteristics, and their functions
- physiology and the types of muscle contractions
- effects of aging on muscles.
- How would you distinguish among the functions of the muscular system?
- What is the basic unit of muscle tissue?
- How would you distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue, and how would you summarize the functions of each type?
- What are the major muscles of the body, and where are they located?
- How are muscles attached to bones?
- How would you differentiate between antagonistic muscles and synergistic muscles?
- What is the role of the nervous system in muscle function?
- How would you differentiate between muscle tone and muscle sense?
- What are the energy sources for muscle contraction?
- How would you describe the physiology of muscle concentration, including the Sliding Filament Theory, neurotransmitters, polarization, depolarization, muscle fatigue, and events leading to oxygen debt?
- What is the simple equation of cellular respiration, and what happens to each of the products in this equation?
- What are the types of muscle contractions?
- How would you describe the body's physiological responses to exercise? Summarize how each response assists homeostasis.
- What would you recommend to minimize the effects of aging on the muscular system?
Related Standards of Learning
The student will investigate and understand life functions of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Key concepts include
- comparison of their metabolic activities;
- maintenance of homeostasis;
- how the structures and functions vary among and within the Eukarya kingdoms of protists, fungi, plants, and animals, including humans;
- human health issues, human anatomy, and body systems;
- how viruses compare with organisms; and
- evidence supporting the germ theory of infectious disease.