# CTE Resource Center - Verso - Family and Human Services I Related Standards of Learning

CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Related Standards of Learning

English

6.1

The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.
  1. Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  2. Participate as a facilitator and a contributor in a group.
  3. Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.
  4. Ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective.
  5. Summarize the main points a speaker makes.
  6. Summarize and evaluate group activities.
  7. Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.
  8. Evaluate own contributions to discussions.
  9. Demonstrate the ability to collaborate with diverse teams.
  10. Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.

6.2

The student will create multimodal presentations that effectively communicate ideas.
  1. Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
  2. Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
  3. Give collaborative and individual formal and informal interactive presentations.
  4. Paraphrase and summarize key ideas of a presentation.

6.3

The student will determine the purpose of media messages and examine how they are constructed.
  1. Compare and contrast techniques used in a variety of media messages.
  2. Identify the characteristics and effectiveness of a variety of media messages.
  3. Interpret information presented in diverse media formats and explain how it contributes to the topic.
  4. Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.

6.4

The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.
  1. Identify word origins and derivations.
  2. Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.
  3. Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.
  4. Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.
  5. Use word-reference materials.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

6.5

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, and poetry.
  1. Identify the elements of narrative structure, including setting, character, plot, conflict, and theme.
  2. Describe cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.
  3. Explain how an author uses character development to drive conflict and resolution.
  4. Differentiate between first and third person point-of-view.
  5. Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of a text.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences using the text for support.
  7. Identify the characteristics of a variety of genres.
  8. Identify and analyze the author’s use of figurative language.
  9. Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.
  10. Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.
  11. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

6.6

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Skim materials using text features such as type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.
  2. Identify main idea.
  3. Summarize supporting details.
  4. Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.
  6. Identify the author’s organizational pattern(s).
  7. Identify transitional words and phrases that signal an author’s organizational pattern.
  8. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  9. Identify cause and effect relationships.
  10. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  11. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

6.7

The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on narrative and reflective writing.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Choose audience and purpose.
  3. Use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.
  4. Organize writing to fit mode or topic.
  5. Write narratives to include characters, plot, setting, and point of view.
  6. Establish a central idea incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure.
  7. Compose a thesis statement for expository and persuasive writing.
  8. Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.
  9. Use transition words and phrases.
  10. Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.
  11. Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.
  12. Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.

6.8

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.
  2. Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.
  3. Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
  4. Eliminate double negatives.
  5. Use quotation marks with dialogue.
  6. Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
  7. Use correct spelling for frequently used words.
  8. Use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.

6.9

The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.
  1. Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.
  2. Collect and organize information from multiple sources.
  3. Evaluate and analyze the validity and credibility of sources.
  4. Cite primary and secondary sources.
  5. Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

7.1

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.
  1. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  2. Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.
  3. Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.
  4. Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.
  5. Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.
  6. Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
  7. Give formal and informal presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.
  8. Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.
  9. Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.
  10. Share responsibility for collaborative work.

7.2

The student will create multimodal presentations both individually and in a group that effectively communicate ideas.
  1. Select, organize, and create content to complement and extend meaning for a selected topic.
  2. Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
  3. Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
  4. Paraphrase and summarize a speaker’s key ideas.

7.3

The student will examine the elements of media literacy.
  1. Identify persuasive/informative techniques used in media.
  2. Distinguish between fact and opinion, and between evidence and inference.
  3. Describe how word choice, visual images, and sound convey a viewpoint.
  4. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of techniques in auditory, visual, and written media messages.
  5. Craft and publish audience-specific media messages.

7.4

The student will read and determine the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases within authentic texts.
  1. Identify word origins and derivations.
  2. Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to expand vocabulary.
  3. Identify and analyze the construction and impact of figurative language.
  4. Identify connotations.
  5. Use context and sentence structure to determine meanings and differentiate among multiple meanings of words.
  6. Use word-reference materials to determine meanings and etymology.
  7. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

7.5

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.
  1. Describe the elements of narrative structure including setting, character development, plot, theme, and conflict and how they influence each other.
  2. Identify and explain the theme(s).
  3. Identify cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.
  4. Differentiate between first and third person point-of-view.
  5. Identify elements and characteristics of a variety of genres.
  6. Compare and contrast various forms and genres of fictional text.
  7. Describe the impact of word choice, imagery, and literary devices including figurative language in an author’s style.
  8. Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.
  9. Make inferences and draw conclusions based on the text.
  10. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

7.6

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Skim materials using text features including type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information.
  2. Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.
  3. Make inferences and draw logical conclusions using explicit and implied textual evidence.
  4. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  5. Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of texts.
  6. Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.
  7. Identify the main idea.
  8. Summarize text identifying supporting details.
  9. Create an objective summary including main idea and supporting details.
  10. Identify cause and effect relationships.
  11. Organize and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.
  12. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  13. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

7.7

The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Choose intended audience and purpose.
  3. Use a variety of prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.
  4. Organize writing structure to fit form or topic.
  5. Establish a central idea incorporating evidence, while maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  6. Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that includes a position.
  7. Clearly state a position and organize reasons and evidence, using credible sources.
  8. Distinguish between fact and opinion to support a position.
  9. Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.
  10. Use transition words and phrases within and between paragraphs.
  11. Develop and modify the central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.
  12. Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.
  13. Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.
  14. Revise writing for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.

7.8

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Choose appropriate adjectives and adverbs to enhance writing.
  2. Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.
  3. Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.
  4. Edit for verb tense consistency and point of view.
  5. Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.
  6. Use correct spelling for commonly used words.

7.9

The student will find, evaluate, and select appropriate resources to create a research product.
  1. Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.
  2. Collect, organize, and synthesize information from multiple sources.
  3. Analyze and evaluate the validity and credibility of resources.
  4. Quote, summarize, and paraphrase information from primary and secondary sources using proper citations.
  5. Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

8.1

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.
  1. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks and share responsibility for collaborative work within diverse teams.
  2. Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.
  3. Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.
  4. Include all group members, and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  5. Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.

8.2

The student will develop and deliver multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select, organize, and create multimodal content that encompasses opposing points of view.
  2. Choose vocabulary and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.
  3. Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
  4. Cite information sources.
  5. Respond to audience questions and comments.
  6. Differentiate between Standard English and informal language.
  7. Evaluate presentations.

8.3

The student will analyze, develop, and produce creative or informational media messages.
  1. Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques used in diverse media formats.
  2. Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.
  3. Use media and visual literacy skills to create products to express new understandings.
  4. Evaluate sources for relationships between intent and factual content.
  5. Utilize multimedia to clarify information and emphasize differing points of view.
  6. Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).
  7. Demonstrate the ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.

8.4

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development within authentic texts.
  1. Identify and analyze the construction and impact of an author’s use of figurative language.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meaning and differentiate among multiple meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Use roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to determine the meaning(s) of unfamiliar words and technical vocabulary.
  4. Identify the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Use word-reference materials to determine meanings and etymology.
  6. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  7. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

8.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of fictional texts, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama.
  1. Analyze how authors’ development of characters, conflict, point of view, voice, and tone convey meaning.
  2. Identify cause and effect relationships and their impact on plot.
  3. Explain the development of the theme(s).
  4. Explain the use of symbols and figurative language.
  5. Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using references to the text for support.
  6. Identify and analyze characteristics within a variety of genres.
  7. Compare/contrast details in literary and informational nonfiction texts.
  8. Compare and contrast the authors’ use of word choice, dialogue, form, rhyme, rhythm, and voice in different texts.
  9. Compare and contrast authors’ styles.
  10. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

8.6

The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Identify an author’s organizational pattern using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.
  2. Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to analyze selections.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview or locate information.
  4. Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
  5. Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, word choice, and impact.
  6. Analyze details for relevance and accuracy.
  7. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  8. Identify the main idea.
  9. Summarize the text identifying supporting details.
  10. Identify cause and effect relationships.
  11. Evaluate, organize, and synthesize information for use in written and other formats.
  12. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  13. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

8.7

The student will write in a variety of forms to include narrative, expository, persuasive, and reflective with an emphasis on expository and persuasive writing.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Choose intended audience and purpose.
  3. Use prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.
  4. Organize writing structure to fit form or topic.
  5. Establish a central idea incorporating evidence, maintaining an organized structure and formal style.
  6. Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position with reasons and evidence, from credible sources.
  8. Identify a counterclaim and provide a counter - argument.
  9. Distinguish between fact and opinion to support a position.
  10. Organize information to provide elaboration and unity.
  11. Develop and modify the central idea, tone, and voice to fit the audience and purpose.
  12. Revise writing for clarity of content, word choice, sentence variety, and transitions among paragraphs.

8.8

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use and punctuate correctly varied sentence structures to include conjunctions and transition words.
  2. Correctly use pronouns in prepositional phrases with compound objects.
  3. Use a variety of sentence structures to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  4. Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
  5. Use comparative and superlative degrees in adverbs and adjectives.
  6. Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.
  7. Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

8.9

The student will find, evaluate, select, and synthesize appropriate resources to produce a research product.
  1. Formulate and revise questions about a research topic.
  2. Collect and synthesize information from multiple sources.
  3. Evaluate and analyze the validity and credibility of resources.
  4. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  5. Cite primary and secondary sources using Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  6. Quote, summarize and paraphrase research findings.
  7. Publish findings and respond to feedback.
  8. Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  9. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

9.1

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and make multimodal presentations both independently and in small groups.
  1. Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  4. Assist with setting rules for group work including informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views and goal setting.
  5. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  6. Share responsibility for collaborative work.
  7. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  8. Include all group members, acknowledge new information expressed by others, and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  9. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  10. Evaluate impact, purpose, point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric of presentation(s).
  11. Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.

9.2

The student will produce, analyze, and evaluate media messages.
  1. Analyze and interpret special effects used in media messages.
  2. Determine the purpose of the media message and its effect on the audience.
  3. Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques used in diverse media formats.
  4. Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).
  5. Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.
  6. Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.
  7. Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, political cartoons, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.
  8. Monitor, analyze, and use multiple streams of simultaneous information.
  9. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.

9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
  2. Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
  3. Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
  4. Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
  5. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  6. Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
  7. Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
  8. Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
  9. Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
  10. Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
  11. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  12. Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

9.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include expository, persuasive, reflective, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Plan, organize, and write for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  3. Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
  6. Compose a thesis for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and evidence from credible sources as support.
  8. Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
  9. Determine the best kind of evidence to use for a claim, and effectively use fact and opinion to support a position.
  10. Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
  11. Arrange paragraphs in a logical progression, using transitions between paragraphs and ideas.
  12. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.

9.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.
  3. Use commas and semicolons to distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses.
  4. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  5. Use a variety of sentence structures to infuse sentence variety in writing.

9.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the validity and accuracy of all information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to support claims and introduce counterclaims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased information using a standard method of documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

10.1

The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams including setting rules and goals for group work such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.
  4. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  5. Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  8. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
  10. Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.
  11. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.

10.2

The student will examine, analyze, and produce media messages.
  1. Create media messages for diverse audiences.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Evaluate sources for relationships between intent, factual content, and opinion.
  4. Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.
  5. Analyze the purpose of information and persuasive techniques used in diverse media formats.
  6. Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).
  7. Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.
  8. Monitor, analyze, and use multiple streams of simultaneous information.
  9. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  9. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  10. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

10.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  3. Adjust writing content, technique, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  4. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
  5. Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  6. Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and sufficient evidence from credible sources as support.
  8. Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
  9. Show relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence and include a conclusion that follows logically from the information presented.
  10. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  11. Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.
  12. Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
  13. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  14. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

10.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  4. Use colons correctly.
  5. Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.

10.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counter claims and to support claims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

11.1

The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  5. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  6. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  7. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  8. Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

11.2

The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.
  1. Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.
  2. Create media messages with a specific point of view.
  3. Evaluate media sources for relationships between intent and content.
  4. Analyze the impact of selected media formats on meaning.
  5. Determine the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages.
  6. Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.
  7. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.

11.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
  3. Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  5. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.
  6. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

11.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Use verbals and verbal phrases correctly to achieve sentence conciseness and variety.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.

11.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
  2. Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
  3. Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

12.1

The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  5. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

12.2

The student will examine how values and points of view are included or excluded and how media influences beliefs and behaviors.
  1. Describe possible cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends.
  2. Evaluate media sources for relationships between intent and factual content.
  3. Evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind media presentation(s).
  4. Examine how values and viewpoints are included or excluded and how the media can influence beliefs, behaviors, and interpretations.
  5. Evaluate sources including advertisements, editorials, political cartoons, and feature stories for relationships between intent and factual content.
  6. Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information.
  7. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet when evaluating or producing creative or informational media messages.

12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
  2. Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
  3. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

12.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
  3. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  6. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.
  9. Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.

12.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.
  3. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

12.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  3. Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

History and Social Science

CE.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. analyzing and interpreting evidence from primary and secondary sources, including charts, graphs, and political cartoons;
  2. analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
  3. analyzing information to create diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
  4. determining the accuracy and validity of information by separating fact and opinion and recognizing bias;
  5. constructing informed, evidence-based arguments from multiple sources;
  6. determining multiple cause-and-effect relationships that impact political and economic events;
  7. taking informed action to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the costs and benefits of a specific choice;
  9. applying civic virtue and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
  10. defending conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from sources.

CE.3

The student will apply social science skills to understand citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by

  1. describing the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the United States;
  2. describing the First Amendment freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition, and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws;
  3. describing the duties of citizenship, including obeying the laws, paying taxes, defending the nation, and serving in court;
  4. examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society; and
  5. evaluating how civic and social duties address community needs and serve the public good.

CE.4

The student will demonstrate personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by

  1. practicing trustworthiness and honesty;
  2. practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;
  3. practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;
  4. practicing respect for the law;
  5. practicing patriotism;
  6. practicing thoughtful decision making; and
  7. practicing service to the school and/or local community.

CE.11

The student will apply social science skills to understand of how economic decisions are made in the marketplace by

  1. explaining that because of scarcity, consumers, producers, and governments must make choices, understanding that everyone’s choice has an opportunity cost; and
  2. comparing and contrasting how traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies decide how to allocate their limited resources.

CE.12

The student will apply social science skills to understand the United States economy by

  1. describing the characteristics of the United States economy, including limited government, private property, profit, markets, consumer sovereignty, and competition;
  2. describing how in a market economy supply and demand determine prices;
  3. describing the types of business organizations and the role of entrepreneurship;
  4. explaining the circular flow that shows how consumers (households), businesses (producers), and markets interact;
  5. explaining how financial institutions channel funds from savers to borrowers; and
  6. analyzing the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy, with emphasis on the impact of technological innovations.

CE.14

The student will apply social science skills to understand personal finance and career opportunities by

  1. identifying talents, interests, and aspirations that influence career choice;
  2. identifying human capital such as attitudes and behaviors that strengthen the individual work ethic and promote career success;
  3. identifying human capital such as abilities, skills, and education and the changing supply of and demand for them in the economy;
  4. examining the impact of technological change and globalization on career opportunities;
  5. describing the importance of education to lifelong personal finances; and
  6. analyzing the financial responsibilities of citizenship, including evaluating common forms of credit, savings, investments, purchases, contractual agreements, warranties, and guarantees.

GOVT.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. planning inquiries by synthesizing information from diverse primary and secondary sources;
  2. analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
  3. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
  4. evaluating critically the quality, accuracy, and validity of information to determine misconceptions, fact and opinion, and bias;
  5. constructing informed, analytic arguments using evidence from multiple sources to introduce and support substantive and significant claims;
  6. explaining how cause-and-effect relationships impact political and economic events;
  7. taking knowledgeable, constructive action, individually and collaboratively, to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze the costs and benefits of a specific choice, considering incentives and possible consequences;
  9. applying civic virtues and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
  10. communicating conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from multiple sources and citing specific sources.

GOVT.3

The student will apply social science skills to understand the concepts of democracy by

  1. recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;
  2. recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;
  3. recognizing what defines a citizen and how noncitizens can become citizens;
  4. recognizing majority rule and minority rights;
  5. recognizing the necessity of compromise; and
  6. recognizing the freedom of the individual.

GOVT.8

The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

  1. examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  2. examining the structure and powers of local governments (county, city, and town);
  3. analyzing the relationship between state and local governments and the roles of regional authorities, governing boards, and commissions;
  4. investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments; and
  5. evaluating the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decisions of state and local governments by examining historical or contemporary events.

GOVT.9

The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by

  1. defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
  2. examining different perspectives on the role of government;
  3. describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
  4. describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
  5. investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
  6. analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
  7. devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.

GOVT.15

The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by

  1. describing the provision of government goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;
  2. describing government’s establishment and maintenance of the rules and institutions in which markets operate, including the establishment and enforcement of property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, environmental protection, and competition in the marketplace;
  3. investigating and describing the types and purposes of taxation that are used by local, state, and federal governments to pay for services provided by the government;
  4. analyzing how Congress can use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy;
  5. describing the effects of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy on price stability, employment, and the economy; and
  6. evaluating the trade-offs in government decisions.

GOVT.16

The student will apply social science skills to understand that in a democratic republic, thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by

  1. exercising personal character traits such as trustworthiness, responsibility, and honesty;
  2. obeying the law and paying taxes;
  3. serving as a juror;
  4. participating in the political process and voting in local, state, and national elections;
  5. performing public service;
  6. keeping informed about current issues;
  7. respecting differing opinions and the rights of others;
  8. practicing personal and fiscal responsibility;
  9. demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that foster the responsible and respectful use of digital media; and
  10. practicing patriotism.

USI.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship, by

  1. analyzing and interpreting artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in United States history;
  2. analyzing and interpreting geographic information to determine patterns and trends in United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in United States history;
  4. using evidence to draw conclusions and make generalizations;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, and political perspectives in United States history;
  6. determining relationships with multiple causes or effects in United States history;
  7. explaining connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to identify the costs and benefits of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

USII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. analyzing and interpreting artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in United States history;
  2. analyzing and interpreting geographic information to determine patterns and trends in United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in United States history;
  4. using evidence to draw conclusions and make generalizations;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, and political perspectives in United States history;
  6. determining relationships with multiple causes or effects in United States history;
  7. explaining connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

USII.9

The student will apply social science skills to understand the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by

  1. examining the impact of the Civil Rights Movement, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the changing role of women on all Americans;
  2. describing the development of new technologies in communication, entertainment, and business and their impact on American life;
  3. analyzing how representative citizens have influenced America scientifically, culturally, academically, and economically; and
  4. evaluating and explaining American foreign policy, immigration, the global environment, and other emerging issues.

VUS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in Virginia and United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in Virginia and United States history;
  4. constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and ethical use of material and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

VUS.3

The student will apply social science skills to understand early European colonization by

  1. evaluating the economic characteristics of the colonies;
  2. analyzing how social and political factors impacted the culture of the colonies; and
  3. explaining the impact of the development of indentured servitude and slavery in the colonies.

VUS.13

The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, political, and cultural movements and changes in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century by

  1. explaining the factors that led to United States expansion;
  2. evaluating and explaining the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver W. Hill, Sr., and how Virginia responded to the decision;
  3. explaining how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had an impact on all Americans;
  4. analyzing changes in immigration policy and the impact of increased immigration;
  5. evaluating and explaining the foreign and domestic policies pursued by the American government after the Cold War;
  6. explaining how scientific and technological advances altered American lives; and
  7. evaluating and explaining the changes that occurred in American culture.

VUS.14

The student will apply social science skills to understand political and social conditions in the United States during the early twenty-first century by

  1. assessing the development of and changes in domestic policies, with emphasis on the impact of the role the United States Supreme Court played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;
  2. evaluating and explaining the changes in foreign policies and the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism, with emphasis on the American response to 9/11 (September 11, 2001);
  3. evaluating the evolving and changing role of government, including its role in the American economy; and
  4. explaining scientific and technological changes and evaluating their impact on American culture

WG.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about the world’s countries, cities, and environments;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world regions;
  3. creating, comparing, and interpreting maps, charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of world regions;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. using maps and other visual images to compare and contrast historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
  6. explaining indirect cause-and-effect relationships to understand geospatial connections;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

WG.4

The student will apply social science skills to evaluate the significance of natural, human, and capital resources by

  1. comparing the distribution of major natural resources throughout world regions;
  2. showing the influence of resources on patterns of economic activity and land use; and
  3. evaluating perspectives regarding the use of resources.

WHI.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in world history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in world history;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in world history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impacted people, places, and events in world history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizens and ethical use of materials and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

WHII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events and life in world history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in world history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in world history;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in world history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impacted people, places, and events in world history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizens and ethical use of materials and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

Mathematics

6.1

The student will represent relationships between quantities using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, such as a/b, a to b, and a:b.

6.2

The student will
  1. represent and determine equivalencies among fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents; and
  2. compare and order positive rational numbers.

6.3

The student will
  1. identify and represent integers;
  2. compare and order integers; and
  3. identify and describe absolute value of integers.

6.4

The student will recognize and represent patterns with whole number exponents and perfect squares.

6.5

The student will
  1. multiply and divide fractions and mixed numbers;
  2. solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions and mixed numbers; and
  3. solve multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals.

6.6

  1. add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers;
  2. solve practical problems involving operations with integers; and
  3. simplify numerical expressions involving integers.

6.7

The student will
  1. derive π (pi);
  2. solve problems, including practical problems, involving circumference and area of a circle; and
  3. solve problems, including practical problems, involving area and perimeter of triangles and rectangles.

6.10

The student, given a practical situation, will
  1. represent data in a circle graph;
  2. make observations and inferences about data represented in a circle graph; and
  3. compare circle graphs with the same data represented in bar graphs, pictographs, and line plots.

6.11

The student will
  1. represent the mean of a data set graphically as the balance point; and
  2. determine the impact on measures of center when a single value of a data set is added, removed, or changed.

6.12

The student will
  1. represent a proportional relationship between two quantities, including those arising from practical situations;
  2. determine the unit rate of a proportional relationship and use it to find a missing value in a ratio table;
  3. determine if a proportional relationship exists between two quantities; and
  4. make connections between and among representations of a proportional relationship between two quantities using verbal descriptions, ratio tables, and graphs.

6.13

The student will solve one-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a one-step linear equation in one variable.

6.14

The student will
  1. represent a practical situation with a linear inequality in one variable; and
  2. solve one-step linear inequalities in one variable, involving addition or subtraction, and graph the solution on a number line.

7.1

The student will
  1. investigate and describe the concept of negative exponents for powers of ten;
  2. compare and order numbers greater than zero written in scientific notation;
  3. compare and order rational numbers;
  4. determine square roots of perfect squares; and
  5. identify and describe absolute value of rational numbers.

7.2

The student will solve practical problems involving operations with rational numbers.

7.3

The student will solve single-step and multistep practical problems, using proportional reasoning.

7.4

The student will
  1. describe and determine the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders; and
  2. solve problems, including practical problems, involving the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.

7.5

The student will solve problems, including practical problems, involving the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles of similar quadrilaterals and triangles.

7.6

The student will
  1. compare and contrast quadrilaterals based on their properties; and
  2. determine unknown side lengths or angle measures of quadrilaterals.

7.8

The student will
  1. determine the theoretical and experimental probabilities of an event; and
  2. investigate and describe the difference between the experimental probability and theoretical probability of an event.

7.9

The student, given data in a practical situation, will
  1. represent data in a histogram;
  2. make observations and inferences about data represented in a histogram; and
  3. compare histograms with the same data represented in stem-and-leaf plots, line plots, and circle graphs.

7.10

The student will
  1. determine the slope, m, as a rate of change in a proportional relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = mx to represent the relationship;
  2. graph a line representing a proportional relationship between two quantities given the slope and an ordered pair, or given the equation in y = mx form, where m represents the slope as rate of change;
  3. determine the y-intercept, b, in an additive relationship between two quantities and write an equation in the form y = x + b to represent the relationship;
  4. graph a line representing an additive relationship between two quantities given the y-intercept and an ordered pair, or given the equation in the form y = x + b, where b represents the y-intercept; and
  5. make connections between and among representations of a proportional or additive relationship between two quantities using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs.

7.11

The student will evaluate algebraic expressions for given replacement values of the variables.

7.12

The student will solve two-step linear equations in one variable, including practical problems that require the solution of a two-step linear equation in one variable.

7.13

The student will solve one- and two-step linear inequalities in one variable, including practical problems, involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and graph the solution on a number line.

8.2

The student will describe the relationships between the subsets of the real number system.

8.4

The student will solve practical problems involving consumer applications.

8.5

The student will use the relationships among pairs of angles that are vertical angles, adjacent angles, supplementary angles, and complementary angles to determine the measure of unknown angles.

8.6

The student will
  1. solve problems, including practical problems, involving volume and surface area of cones and square-based pyramids; and
  2. describe how changing one measured attribute of a rectangular prism affects the volume and surface area.

8.7

The student will
  1. given a polygon, apply transformations, to include translations, reflections, and dilations, in the coordinate plane; and
  2. identify practical applications of transformations.

8.8

The student will construct a three-dimensional model, given the top or bottom, side, and front views.

8.9

The student will
  1. verify the Pythagorean Theorem; and
  2. apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

8.10

The student will solve area and perimeter problems, including practical problems, involving composite plane figures.

8.11

The student will
  1. compare and contrast the probability of independent and dependent events; and
  2. determine probabilities for independent and dependent events.

8.12

The student will
  1. represent numerical data in boxplots;
  2. make observations and inferences about data represented in boxplots; and
  3. compare and analyze two data sets using boxplots.

8.13

The student will
  1. represent data in scatterplots;
  2. make observations about data represented in scatterplots; and
  3. use a drawing to estimate the line of best fit for data represented in a scatterplot.

8.14

The student will
  1. evaluate an algebraic expression for given replacement values of the variables; and
  2. simplify algebraic expressions in one variable.

8.15

The student will
  1. determine whether a given relation is a function; and
  2. determine the domain and range of a function.

8.16

The student will
  1. recognize and describe the graph of a linear function with a slope that is positive, negative, or zero;
  2. identify the slope and y-intercept of a linear function, given a table of values, a graph, or an equation in y = mx + b form;
  3. determine the independent and dependent variable, given a practical situation modeled by a linear function;
  4. graph a linear function given the equation in y = mx + b form; and
  5. make connections between and among representations of a linear function using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs.

8.17

The student will solve multistep linear equations in one variable with the variable on one or both sides of the equation, including practical problems that require the solution of a multistep linear equation in one variable.

8.18

The student will solve multistep linear inequalities in one variable with the variable on one or both sides of the inequality symbol, including practical problems, and graph the solution on a number line.

A.1

The student will
  1. represent verbal quantitative situations algebraically; and
  2. evaluate algebraic expressions for given replacement values of the variables.

A.3

The student will simplify
  1. square roots of whole numbers and monomial algebraic expressions;
  2. cube roots of integers; and
  3. numerical expressions containing square or cube roots.

A.4

The student will solve
  1. multistep linear and quadratic equations in one variables algebraically;
  2. quadratic equations in one variables algebraically;
  3. literal equations for a specified variable;
  4. systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and graphically; and
  5. practical problems involving equations and systems of equations.

A.5

The student will
  1. solve multistep linear inequalities in one variable algebraically and represent the solution graphically;
  2. represent the solution of linear inequalities in two variables graphically;
  3. solving practical problems involving inequalities; and
  4. represent the solution to a system of inequalities graphically.

A.7

The student will investigate and analyze function (linear and quadratic) families and their characteristics both algebraically and graphically, including
  1. determining whether a relation is a function;
  2. domain and range;
  3. zeros of a function;
  4. x- and y-intercepts;
  5. finding the values of a function for elements in its domain; and
  6. making connections between and among multiple representations of functions including concrete, verbal, numeric, graphic, and algebraic.

A.8

The student, given a situation in a real-world context, will analyze a relation to determine whether a direct or inverse variation exists, and represent a direct variation algebraically and graphically and an inverse variation algebraically.

A.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear and quadratic functions.

AFDA.1

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic function families and their characteristics. Key concepts include
  1. domain and range;
  2. intervals in which the function is increasing or decreasing;
  3. absolute maxima and minima;
  4. zeros;
  5. intercepts;
  6. values of a function for elements in its domain;
  7. connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
  8. end behavior; and
  9. vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

AFDA.3

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems using models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

AFDA.4

The student will use multiple representations of functions for analysis, interpretation, and prediction.

AFDA.5

The student will determine optimal values in problem situations by identifying constraints and using linear programming techniques.

AFDA.6

The student will calculate probabilities. Key concepts include
  1. conditional probability;
  2. dependent and independent events;
  3. mutually exclusive events;
  4. counting techniques (permutations and combinations); and
  5. Law of Large Numbers.

AFDA.7

The student will
  1. identify and describe properties of a normal distribution;
  2. interpret and compare z-scores for normally distributed data; and
  3. apply properties of normal distributions to determine probabilities associated with areas under the standard normal curve.

AFDA.8

The student will design and conduct an experiment/survey. Key concepts include
  1. sample size;
  2. sampling technique;
  3. controlling sources of bias and experimental error;
  4. data collection; and
  5. data analysis and reporting.

AII.3

The student will solve
  1. absolute value linear equations and inequalities;
  2. quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers;
  3. equations containing rational algebraic expressions; and
  4. equations containing radical expressions.

AII.4

The student will solve systems of linear-quadratic and quadratic-quadratic equations, algebraically and graphically.

AII.7

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic function families algebraically and graphically. Key concepts include
  1. domain, range, and continuity;
  2. intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing;
  3. extrema;
  4. zeros;
  5. intercepts;
  6. values of a function for elements in its domain;
  7. connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
  8. end behavior;
  9. vertical and horizontal asymptotes;
  10. inverse of a function; and
  11. composition of functions algebraically and graphically.

AII.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

AII.10

The student will represent, create, and solve problems, including practical problems, involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

AII.11

The student will
  1. identify and describe properties of a normal distribution;
  2. interpret and compare z-scores for normally distributed data; and
  3. apply properties of normal distributions to determine probabilities associated with areas under the standard normal curve.

COM.1

The student will design and apply computer programs to solve practical problems in mathematics arising from business and applications in mathematics.

COM.2

The student will design, write, document, test, and debug, a computer program.

COM.3

The student will write program specifications that define the constraints of a given problem.

COM.4

The student will design an algorithm to solve a given problem.

COM.5

The student will divide a given problem into modules by task and implement the solution.

COM.7

The student will select and call library functions to process data, as appropriate.

COM.8

The student will implement conditional statements that include “if/then” statements, “if/then/else” statements, case statements, and Boolean logic.

COM.9

The student will implement pre-defined algorithms, including sort routines, search routines, and simple animation routines.

COM.10

The student will design and implement the input phase of a program, which will include designing screen layout, getting information into the program by way of user interaction and/or file input, and validating input.

COM.11

The student will design and implement the output phase of a computer program, which will include designing output layout, accessing available output devices, using output statements, and labeling results.

COM.12

The student will design and implement computer graphics to enhance output.

COM.16

The student will describe the way the computer stores, accesses, and processes variables, including the following topics: the use of variables versus constants, parameter passing, scope of variables, and local versus global variables.

COM.18

The student will debug a program using appropriate techniques (e.g., appropriately placed controlled breaks, the printing of intermediate results, other debugging tools available in the programming environment), and identify the difference among syntax errors, runtime errors, and logic errors.

DM.4

The student will apply algorithms relating to trees, networks, and paths. Appropriate technology will be used to determine the number of possible solutions and generate solutions when a feasible number exists.

DM.7

The student will identify apportionment inconsistencies that apply to issues such as salary caps in sports and allocation of representatives to Congress. Historical and current methods will be compared.

DM.8

The student will describe and apply sorting algorithms and coding algorithms used in sorting, processing, and communicating information.

DM.10

The student will use algorithms to schedule tasks in order to determine a minimum project time. The algorithms will include critical path analysis, the list-processing algorithm, and student-created algorithms.

DM.1*

The student will model problems, using vertex-edge graphs. The concepts of valence, connectedness, paths, planarity, and directed graphs will be investigated.

DM.2*

The student will solve problems through investigation and application of circuits, cycles, Euler paths, Euler circuits, Hamilton paths, and Hamilton circuits. Optimal solutions will be sought using existing algorithms and student-created algorithms.

DM.3*

The student will apply graphs to conflict-resolution problems, such as map coloring, scheduling, matching, and optimization.

DM.9*

The student will select, justify, and apply an appropriate technique to solve a logic problem.

G.1

The student will use deductive reasoning to construct and judge the validity of a logical argument consisting of a set of premises and a conclusion. This will include
  1. identifying the converse, inverse, and contrapositive of a conditional statement;
  2. translating a short verbal argument into symbolic form; and
  3. determining the validity of a logical argument.

G.13

The student will use surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects to solve practical problems.

G.14

The student will apply the concepts of similarity to two- or three-dimensional geometric figures. This will include
  1. comparing ratios between lengths, perimeters, areas, and volumes of similar figures;
  2. determining how changes in one or more dimensions of a figure affect area and/or volume of the figure;
  3. determining how changes in area and/or volume of a figure affect one or more dimensions of the figure; and
  4. solving problems, including practical problems, about similar geometric figures.

PS.17

The student, given data from a large sample, will determine and interpret point estimates and confidence intervals for parameters. The parameters will include proportion and mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired), and slope of a least-squares regression line.

PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

PS.10*

The student will plan and conduct a well-designed experiment. The plan will address control, randomization, replication, blinding, and measurement of experimental error.

PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

PS.4*

The student will analyze scatterplots to identify and describe the relationship between two variables, using shape; strength of relationship; clusters; positive, negative, or no association; outliers; and influential points.

PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

PS.8*

The student will describe the methods of data collection in a census, sample survey, experiment, and observational study and identify an appropriate method of solution for a given problem setting.

PS.9*

The student will plan and conduct a survey. The plan will address sampling techniques and methods to reduce bias.

Science

6.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;
  2. precise and approximate measurements are recorded;
  3. scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;
  4. hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;
  5. a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;
  6. one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;
  7. data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;
  8. data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;
  9. models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and
  10. current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

BIO.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;
  2. hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;
  3. variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;
  4. graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;
  5. conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;
  6. sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
  7. validity of data is determined;
  8. chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;
  9. appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
  10. research utilizes scientific literature;
  11. differentiation is made among a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;
  12. alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and
  13. current applications of biological concepts are used.

CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include
  1. designated laboratory techniques;
  2. safe use of chemicals and equipment;
  3. proper response to emergency situations;
  4. manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
  5. accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
  6. mathematical and procedural error analysis;
  7. mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
  8. use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
  9. construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
  10. the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

ES.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
  1. volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;
  2. technologies including computers, probeware, and geospatial technologies are used to collect, analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;
  3. scales, diagrams, charts, graphs, tables, imagery, models, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;
  4. maps and globes are read and interpreted, including location by latitude and longitude;
  5. variables are manipulated with repeated trials; and
  6. current applications are used to reinforce Earth science concepts.

LS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
  2. a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
  3. triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;
  4. models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
  5. sources of experimental error are identified;
  6. dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;
  7. variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;
  8. data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
  9. patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and
  10. current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

PH.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations using experimental design and product design processes. Key concepts include
  1. the components of a system are defined;
  2. instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements;
  3. information is recorded and presented in an organized format;
  4. the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized;
  5. the limitations of measured quantities are recognized through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges;
  6. models and simulations are used to visualize and explain phenomena, to make predictions from hypotheses, and to interpret data; and
  7. appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results.

PH.4

The student will investigate and understand how applications of physics affect the world. Key concepts include
  1. examples from the real world; and
  2. exploration of the roles and contributions of science and technology.

PS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. chemicals and equipment are used safely;
  2. length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;
  3. conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;
  4. triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;
  5. numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;
  6. independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;
  7. data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;
  8. data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;
  9. frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;
  10. valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;
  11. research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;
  12. experimental results are presented in appropriate written form; and
  13. models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
  14. current applications of physical science concepts are used.