CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Employ the scientific method and the technological/engineering method to solve biotechnology problems.

Definition

Employing the scientific method involves:
  • Identifying the problem
  • Formulating a hypothesis
  • Designing and conducting an experiment
  • Collecting data
  • Analyzing data
  • Drawing conclusions
  • Making recommendations.
Employing the engineering design process should be based on the understanding that this process is concerned with the phenomena of the human-designed world and with obtaining artifacts and solutions to problems. The steps include
  • identifying the need or opportunity for an engineering solution
  • defining a design problem
  • identifying the constraints of a design problem
  • researching potential solutions to a design problem
  • generating multiple solutions (brainstorming) to a design problem
  • sketching solutions for a design problem
  • evaluating potential solutions to a design problem
  • choosing the optimal solution to a design problem
  • implementing the solutions to a design problem
  • communicating the solution to stakeholders
  • testing the solution
  • evaluating the test results
  • improving the solution
  • documenting the process.
The written report should include elements outlined in the FFA Agriscience Fair Final Report such as
  • title page
  • table of contents
  • abstract
  • introduction
  • review of literature
  • materials and methods
  • results
  • discussion and conclusion
  • acknowledgements
  • literature cited.

Process/Skill Questions

  • What are the steps in the scientific method? Scientific argumentation? Inquiry method? Why is each step important?
  • What are the steps in the technological/engineering design method? Why is each step important?
  • What are the similarities and differences between the scientific method and the technological/engineering design method? What conditions determine the method one would use?

Related Standards of Learning

English

10.1

The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams including setting rules and goals for group work such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.
  4. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  5. Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  8. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
  10. Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.
  11. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.

10.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  9. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  10. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

10.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  3. Adjust writing content, technique, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  4. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
  5. Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  6. Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and sufficient evidence from credible sources as support.
  8. Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
  9. Show relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence and include a conclusion that follows logically from the information presented.
  10. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  11. Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.
  12. Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
  13. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  14. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

10.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  4. Use colons correctly.
  5. Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.

10.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counter claims and to support claims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

11.1

The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  5. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  6. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  7. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  8. Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

11.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
  3. Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  5. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.
  6. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

11.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Use verbals and verbal phrases correctly to achieve sentence conciseness and variety.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.

11.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
  2. Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
  3. Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

12.1

The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  5. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

12.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms, and literary and classical allusions in text.
  5. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
  2. Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
  3. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

12.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
  3. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  6. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.
  9. Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.

12.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.
  3. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

12.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  3. Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

Mathematics

A.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear and quadratic functions.

AFDA.1

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic function families and their characteristics. Key concepts include
  1. domain and range;
  2. intervals in which the function is increasing or decreasing;
  3. absolute maxima and minima;
  4. zeros;
  5. intercepts;
  6. values of a function for elements in its domain;
  7. connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
  8. end behavior; and
  9. vertical and horizontal asymptotes.

AFDA.3

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems using models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

AFDA.4

The student will use multiple representations of functions for analysis, interpretation, and prediction.

AFDA.8

The student will design and conduct an experiment/survey. Key concepts include
  1. sample size;
  2. sampling technique;
  3. controlling sources of bias and experimental error;
  4. data collection; and
  5. data analysis and reporting.

AII.7

The student will investigate and analyze linear, quadratic, absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic function families algebraically and graphically. Key concepts include< /br>
  1. domain, range, and continuity;
  2. intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing;
  3. extrema;
  4. zeros;
  5. intercepts;
  6. values of a function for elements in its domain;
  7. connections between and among multiple representations of functions using verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs;
  8. end behavior;
  9. vertical and horizontal asymptotes;
  10. inverse of a function; and
  11. composition of functions algebraically and graphically.

AII.9

The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit in order to make predictions, and solve practical problems, using mathematical models of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.

PS.1*

The student will analyze graphical displays of univariate data, including dotplots, stemplots, boxplots, cumulative frequency graphs, and histograms, to identify and describe patterns and departures from patterns, using central tendency, spread, clusters, gaps, and outliers.

PS.2*

The student will analyze numerical characteristics of univariate data sets to describe patterns and departures from patterns, using mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, and outliers.

PS.3*

The student will compare distributions of two or more univariate data sets, numerically and graphically, analyzing center and spread (within group and between group variations), clusters and gaps, shapes, outliers, or other unusual features.

PS.5

The student will determine and interpret linear correlation, use the method of least squares regression to model the linear relationship between two variables, and use the residual plot to assess linearity.

PS.7*

The student, using two-way tables and other graphical displays, will analyze categorical data to describe patterns and departures from patterns and to determine marginal frequency and relative frequencies, including conditional frequencies.

PS.8*

The student will describe the methods of data collection in a census, sample survey, experiment, and observational study and identify an appropriate method of solution for a given problem setting.

PS.10*

The student will plan and conduct a well-designed experiment. The plan will address control, randomization, replication, blinding, and measurement of experimental error.

PS.18

The student will apply and interpret the logic of an appropriate hypothesis-testing procedure. Tests will include large sample tests for proportion, mean, difference between two proportions, difference between two means (independent and paired); chi-squared tests for goodness of fit, homogeneity of proportions, and independence; and slope of a least-squares regression line.

Science

BIO.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
  1. observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;
  2. hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;
  3. variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;
  4. graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;
  5. conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;
  6. sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
  7. validity of data is determined;
  8. chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;
  9. appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware is used for gathering and analyzing data, communicating results, modeling concepts, and simulating experimental conditions;
  10. research utilizes scientific literature;
  11. differentiation is made among a scientific hypothesis, theory, and law;
  12. alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; and
  13. current applications of biological concepts are used.

CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include
  1. designated laboratory techniques;
  2. safe use of chemicals and equipment;
  3. proper response to emergency situations;
  4. manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
  5. accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
  6. mathematical and procedural error analysis;
  7. mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
  8. use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
  9. construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
  10. the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

Other Related Standards

The National Council for Agricultural Education: Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Content Standards

BS.01.03. Analyze the relationship and implications of bioethics, laws, and public perceptions on applications of biotechnology in agriculture (e.g., ethical, legal, social, cultural issues).

 

BS.02.01. Read, document, evaluate, and secure accurate laboratory records of experimental protocols, observations, and results.