CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Describe the characteristics and functions of enzymes and the biotechnological processes used to produce enzymes.

Definition

Description should emphasize that enzymes

  • are proteins in all living cells
  • are catalytic molecules that speed up the rate of biological and chemical reactions
  • aid in the breakdown of food particles into smaller compounds such as amino acids, simple sugars, glycerol, and fatty acids.

Process/Skill Questions

  • What are the characteristics and functions of enzymes?
  • How are enzymes used in making detergents and cleaning products?
  • What are some common enzymes in plants and animals?
  • How are enzymes used in industrial settings to optimize processes?
  • What are the physical and chemical parameters that affect enzymatic reactions?
  • What is the effect of industrial enzyme use on the environment?

Related Standards of Learning

English

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  9. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  10. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
  2. Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
  3. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

Science

BIO.2

The student will investigate and understand the chemical and biochemical principles essential for life. Key concepts include
  1. water chemistry and its impact on life processes;
  2. the structure and function of macromolecules;
  3. the nature of enzymes; and
  4. the capture, storage, transformation, and flow of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.

CH.6

The student will investigate and understand how basic chemical properties relate to organic chemistry and biochemistry. Key concepts include
  1. unique properties of carbon that allow multi-carbon compounds; and
  2. uses in pharmaceuticals and genetics, petrochemicals, plastics, and food.

Other Related Standards

The National Council for Agricultural Education: Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Content Standards

BS.02.05. Examine and perform scientific procedures using microbes, DNA, RNA, and proteins in a laboratory.

 

BS.03.02. Apply biotechnology principles, techniques, and processes to enhance the production of food through the use of microorganisms and enzymes.