CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Related Standards of Learning

English

6.2

The student will present, listen critically to, and express opinions in oral presentations.
  • Distinguish between fact and opinion.
  • Compare and contrast viewpoints.
  • Present a convincing argument.
  • Paraphrase and summarize what is heard.
  • Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.

6.6

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.
  • Use text structures such as type, headings, and graphics to predict and categorize information in both print and digital texts.
  • Use prior knowledge and build additional background knowledge as context for new learning.
  • Identify questions to be answered.
  • Make, confirm, or revise predictions.
  • Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information.
  • Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  • Identify the main idea.
  • Summarize supporting details.
  • Compare and contrast information about one topic, which may be contained in different selections.
  • Identify the author’s organizational pattern.
  • Identify cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

6.7

The student will write narration, description, exposition, and persuasion.
  • Identify audience and purpose.
  • Use a variety of prewriting strategies including graphic organizers to generate and organize ideas.
  • Organize writing structure to fit mode or topic.
  • Establish a central idea and organization.
  • Compose a topic sentence or thesis, statement if appropriate.
  • Write multiparagraph compositions with elaboration and unity.
  • Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.
  • Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.
  • Revise sentences for clarity of content, including specific vocabulary and information.
  • Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

6.8

The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  • Use a variety of graphic organizers including sentence diagrams to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph structure.
  • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.
  • Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.
  • Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
  • Eliminate double negatives.
  • Use quotation marks with dialogue.
  • Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
  • Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

7.1

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.
  • Communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.
  • Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.
  • Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.
  • Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
  • Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.

7.2

The student will identify and demonstrate the relationship between a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages.
  • Use verbal communication skills, such as word choice, pitch, feeling, tone, and voice, appropriate for the intended audience.
  • Use nonverbal communication skills, such as eye contact, posture, and gestures to enhance verbal communication skills.
  • Compare/contrast a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages.

7.6

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts.
  • Use prior and background knowledge as a context for new learning.
  • Use text structures to aid comprehension.
  • Identify an author’s organizational pattern, using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.
  • Draw conclusions and make inferences about explicit and implied information.
  • Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  • Identify the source, viewpoint, and purpose of a text.
  • Describe how word choice and language structure convey an author’s viewpoint.
  • Identify the main idea.
  • Summarize text identifying supporting details.
  • Identify cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Organize and synthesize information for use in written formats.
  • Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

7.7

The student will write in a variety of forms with an emphasis on exposition, narration, and persuasion.
  • Identify intended audience.
  • Use a variety of prewriting strategies including graphic organizers to generate and organize ideas.
  • Organize writing structure to fit mode or topic.
  • Establish a central idea and organization.
  • Compose a topic sentence or thesis statement.
  • Write multiparagraph compositions with unity, elaborating the central idea.
  • Select vocabulary and information to enhance the central idea, tone, and voice.
  • Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in complete sentences.
  • Use clauses and phrases for sentence variety.
  • Revise sentences for clarity of content including specific vocabulary and information.
  • Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

7.8

The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  • Use a variety of graphic organizers, including sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph structure.
  • Choose appropriate adjectives and adverbs to enhance writing.
  • Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include indefinite pronouns.
  • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses.
  • Edit for verb tense consistency and point of view.
  • Demonstrate understanding of sentence formation by identifying the eight parts of speech and their functions in sentences.
  • Use quotation marks with dialogue.
  • Use correct spelling for commonly used words.

8.2

The student will develop and deliver oral presentations in groups and individually.
  • Choose topic and purpose appropriate to the audience.
  • Choose vocabulary and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.
  • Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal presentation skills.
  • Respond to audience questions and comments.
  • Differentiate between standard English and informal language.
  • Critique oral presentations.
  • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.
  • Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.

8.6

The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  • Draw on background knowledge and knowledge of text structure to understand selections.
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information, using evidence from text as support.
  • Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
  • Analyze the author’s use of text structure and word choice.
  • Analyze details for relevance and accuracy.
  • Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  • Identify the main idea.
  • Summarize text, identifying supporting details.
  • Identify an author’s organizational pattern, using textual clues, such as transitional words and phrases.
  • Identify cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Evaluate, organize, and synthesize information for use in written and oral formats.
  • Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

8.7

The student will write in a variety of forms, including narration, exposition, persuasion, and informational.
  1. Identify intended audience.
  2. Use prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas.
  3. Distinguish between a thesis statement and a topic sentence.
  4. Organize details to elaborate the central idea and provide unity.
  5. Select specific vocabulary and information for audience and purpose.
  6. Use interview quotations as evidence.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, word choice, sentence variety, and transitions between paragraphs.
  8. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

8.8

The student will edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  1. Use a variety of graphic organizers including sentence diagrams to analyze and improve sentence formation and paragraph structure.
  2. Use and punctuate correctly varied sentence structures to include conjunctions and transition words.
  3. Choose the correct case and number for pronouns in prepositional phrases with compound objects.
  4. Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
  5. Use comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs and adjectives.
  6. Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.
  7. Use correct spelling for frequently used words.

9.1

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and make multimodal presentations both independently and in small groups.
  1. Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  4. Assist with setting rules for group work including informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views and goal setting.
  5. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  6. Share responsibility for collaborative work.
  7. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  8. Include all group members, acknowledge new information expressed by others, and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  9. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  10. Evaluate impact, purpose, point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric of presentation(s).
  11. Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.

9.1

The student will make planned oral presentations independently and in small groups.
  1. Include definitions to increase clarity.
  2. Use relevant details to support main ideas.
  3. Illustrate main ideas through anecdotes and examples.
  4. Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  5. Use verbal and nonverbal techniques for presentation.
  6. Evaluate impact and purpose of presentation.
  7. Credit information sources.
  8. Give impromptu responses to questions about presentation.
  9. Give and follow spoken directions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems.
  10. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.
  11. Summarize and evaluate information presented orally by others.
  12. Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.

9.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Identify the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Apply knowledge of text features and organizational patterns to understand, analyze, and gain meaning from texts.
  2. Make inferences and draw conclusions based on explicit and implied information using evidence from text as support.
  3. Analyze the author’s qualifications, viewpoint, and impact.
  4. Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
  5. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  6. Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
  7. Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
  8. Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
  9. Analyze, organize, and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, complete a task, or create a product.
  10. Differentiate between fact and opinion and evaluate their impact.
  11. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  12. Use the reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

9.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Recognize an author’s intended purpose for writing and identify the main idea.
  2. Summarize text, relating supporting details.
  3. Understand the purpose of text structures and use those features to locate information and gain meaning from texts.
  4. Identify characteristics of expository, technical, and persuasive texts.
  5. Identify a position/argument to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
  6. Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, or complete a task.
  8. Draw conclusions and make inferences about explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  9. Differentiate between fact and opinion.
  10. Organize and synthesize information from sources for use in written and oral presentations.
  11. Use reading strategies to monitor comprehension throughout the reading process.

9.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include expository, persuasive, reflective, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Plan, organize, and write for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  3. Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
  6. Compose a thesis for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and evidence from credible sources as support.
  8. Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
  9. Determine the best kind of evidence to use for a claim, and effectively use fact and opinion to support a position.
  10. Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
  11. Arrange paragraphs in a logical progression, using transitions between paragraphs and ideas.
  12. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.

9.6

The student will develop narrative, expository, and persuasive writings for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  1. Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing.
  2. Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  3. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing, using a thesis statement where appropriate.
  4. Write clear, varied sentences, using specific vocabulary and information.
  5. Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.
  6. Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression.
  7. Use transitions between paragraphs and ideas.
  8. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  9. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

9.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  1. Use and apply rules for the parts of a sentence, including subject/verb, direct/indirect object,  predicate nominative/predicate adjective, and coordinating conjunctions.
  2. Use parallel structures across sentences and paragraphs.
  3. Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.
  4. Use commas and semicolons to distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses.
  5. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  6. Proofread and edit writing for intended audience and purpose.

9.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses.
  3. Use commas and semicolons to distinguish and divide main and subordinate clauses.
  4. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  5. Use a variety of sentence structures to infuse sentence variety in writing.

9.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the validity and accuracy of all information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to support claims and introduce counterclaims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased information using a standard method of documentation such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Avoid plagiarism by using own words and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

10.1

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.
  1. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  2. Collaborate in the preparation or summary of the group activity.
  3. Include all group members in oral presentation.
  4. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams to accomplish a common goal.
  6. Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.
  7. Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
  8. Evaluate one’s own role in preparation and delivery of oral reports.
  9. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively.
  10. Analyze and interpret others' presentations.
  11. Evaluate effectiveness of group process in preparation and delivery of oral reports.

10.1

The student will make planned multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Make strategic use of multimodal tools.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work effectively with diverse teams including setting rules and goals for group work such as coming to informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, and presenting alternate views.
  4. Assume responsibility for specific group tasks.
  5. Include all group members and value individual contributions made by each group member.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  8. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Access, critically evaluate, and use information accurately to solve problems.
  10. Use reflection to evaluate one’s own role and the group process in small-group activities.
  11. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, use of evidence, rhetoric, and identify any faulty reasoning.

10.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Identify text organization and structure.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim manuals or informational sources to locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences about explicit and implied information, using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  9. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  10. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

10.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion and analysis.
  1. Engage in writing as a recursive process.
  2. Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  3. Adjust writing content, technique, and voice for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  4. Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement.
  5. Objectively introduce and develop topics, incorporating evidence and maintaining an organized structure and a formal style.
  6. Compose a thesis statement for persuasive writing that advocates a position.
  7. Clearly state and defend a position using reasons and sufficient evidence from credible sources as support.
  8. Identify counterclaims and provide counter - arguments.
  9. Show relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence and include a conclusion that follows logically from the information presented.
  10. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  11. Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice.
  12. Use textual evidence to compare and contrast multiple texts.
  13. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  14. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

10.6

The student will develop a variety of writings to persuade, interpret, analyze, and evaluate, with an emphasis on exposition and analysis.
  1. Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Synthesize information to support a thesis.
  3. Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.
  4. Write clear and varied sentences, clarifying ideas with precise and relevant evidence.
  5. Organize ideas into a logical sequence, using transitions.
  6. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  7. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

10.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use parallel structure across sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  4. Use colons correctly.
  5. Analyze the writing of others and suggest how writing might be improved.

10.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  1. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  2. Apply rules governing use of the colon.
  3. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.
  4. Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited on the bibliography page.
  5. Analyze the writing of others.
  6. Describe how the author accomplishes the intended purpose of a piece of writing.
  7. Suggest how writing might be improved.
  8. Proofread and edit final product for intended audience and purpose.

10.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counter claims and to support claims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

11.1

The student will make planned informative and persuasive multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Respond thoughtfully and tactfully to diverse perspectives, summarizing points of agreement and disagreement.
  5. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  6. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  7. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  8. Use vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  9. Evaluate effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

11.1

The student will make informative and persuasive presentations.
  1. Gather and organize evidence to support a position.
  2. Present evidence clearly and convincingly.
  3. Address counterclaims.
  4. Support and defend ideas in public forums.
  5. Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  6. Monitor listening and use a variety of active listening strategies to make evaluations.
  7. Use presentation technology.
  8. Collaborate and report on small-group learning activities.

11.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

11.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and follow directions to complete an application for college admission, for a scholarship, or for employment.
  3. Generalize ideas from selections to make predictions about other texts.
  4. Draw conclusions and make inferences about explicit and implied information, using textual support.
  5. Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic to identify authors’ purposes and determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  6. Identify false premises in persuasive writing.
  7. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  8. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical-thinking questions before, during, and after reading texts.

11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, with an emphasis on persuasion.
  1. Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing, developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
  3. Organize ideas in a sustained and logical manner.
  4. Clarify and defend position with precise and relevant evidence, elaborating ideas clearly and accurately.
  5. Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  6. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.
  7. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.
  8. Write and revise correspondence to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

11.6

The student will write in a variety of forms, to include persuasive/argumentative, reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing developing a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and provides effective conclusions.
  3. Organize claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  5. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to create a cohesive argument.
  6. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding narratives to produce effective essays.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

11.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for correct grammar, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, and paragraphing.
  1. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.
  2. Use verbals and verbal phrases to achieve sentence conciseness and variety.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.
  4. Differentiate between in-text citations and works cited on the bibliography page.
  5. Adjust sentence and paragraph structures for a variety of purposes and audiences.
  6. Proofread and edit writing for intended audience and purpose.

11.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for capitalization, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure, paragraphing, and Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Use verbals and verbal phrases correctly to achieve sentence conciseness and variety.
  3. Distinguish between active and passive voice.

11.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
  2. Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
  3. Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

12.1

The student will make planned persuasive/argumentative, multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.
  1. Select and effectively use multimodal tools to design and develop presentation content.
  2. Credit information sources.
  3. Demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with diverse teams.
  4. Anticipate and address alternative or opposing perspectives and counterclaims.
  5. Evaluate the various techniques used to construct arguments in multimodal presentations.
  6. Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
  7. Critique effectiveness of multimodal presentations.

12.1

The student will make a formal oral presentation in a group or individually.
  1. Choose the purpose of the presentation.
  2. Choose vocabulary, language, and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.
  3. Use details, illustrations, statistics, comparisons, and analogies to support the presentation.
  4. Use media, visual literacy, and technology skills to create and support the presentation.
  5. Use grammatically correct language, including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose.
  6. Collaborate and report on small-group learning activities.
  7. Evaluate formal presentations including personal, digital, visual, textual, and technological.
  8. Use a variety of listening strategies to analyze relationships among purpose, audience, and content of presentations.
  9. Critique effectiveness of presentations.

12.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms, and literary and classical allusions in text.
  5. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

12.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Use critical thinking to generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, and evaluative questions about the text(s).
  2. Identify and synthesize resources to make decisions, complete tasks, and solve specific problems.
  3. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Analyze false premises claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.

12.5

The student will read and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts.
  1. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical-thinking questions before, during, and after reading texts.
  2. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  3. Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic to identify authors’ purposes and determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  4. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  5. Identify false premises in persuasive writing.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences about explicit and implied information, using textual support.

12.6

The student will develop expository and informational, analytical, and persuasive/argumentative writings.
  1. Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
  3. Clarify and defend a position with precise and relevant evidence.
  4. Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  5. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to accomplish a specific purpose.
  6. Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
  8. Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

12.6

The student will write in a variety of forms to include persuasive/argumentative reflective, interpretive, and analytic with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation.
  1. Apply components of a recursive writing process for multiple purposes to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing to address a specific audience and purpose.
  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.
  3. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to clarify and defend a position organizing claims, counterclaims, and evidence in a sustained and logical sequence.
  4. Blend multiple forms of writing including embedding a narrative to produce effective essays.
  5. Adapt evidence, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.
  6. Use words, phrases, clauses, and varied syntax to connect all parts of the argument creating cohesion from the information presented.
  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information, and technique of presentation.
  8. Write and revise to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.
  9. Write to clearly describe personal qualifications for potential occupational or educational opportunities.

12.7

The student will self- and peer-edit writing for Standard English.
  1. Use complex sentence structure to infuse sentence variety in writing.
  2. Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.
  3. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

12.7

The student will write, revise, and edit writing.
  1. Edit, proofread, and prepare writing for intended audience and purpose.
  2. Apply grammatical conventions to edit writing for correct use of language, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
  3. Use a style manual, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA), to apply rules for punctuation and formatting of direct quotations.

12.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Frame, analyze, and synthesize information to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view, or bias.
  3. Critically evaluate the accuracy, quality, and validity of the information.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

History and Social Science

CE.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. analyzing and interpreting evidence from primary and secondary sources, including charts, graphs, and political cartoons;
  2. analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
  3. analyzing information to create diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
  4. determining the accuracy and validity of information by separating fact and opinion and recognizing bias;
  5. constructing informed, evidence-based arguments from multiple sources;
  6. determining multiple cause-and-effect relationships that impact political and economic events;
  7. taking informed action to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the costs and benefits of a specific choice;
  9. applying civic virtue and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
  10. defending conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from sources.

CE.3

The student will apply social science skills to understand citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by

  1. describing the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the United States;
  2. describing the First Amendment freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition, and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws;
  3. describing the duties of citizenship, including obeying the laws, paying taxes, defending the nation, and serving in court;
  4. examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society; and
  5. evaluating how civic and social duties address community needs and serve the public good.

CE.4

The student will demonstrate personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by

  1. practicing trustworthiness and honesty;
  2. practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;
  3. practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;
  4. practicing respect for the law;
  5. practicing patriotism;
  6. practicing thoughtful decision making; and
  7. practicing service to the school and/or local community.

CE.11

The student will apply social science skills to understand of how economic decisions are made in the marketplace by

  1. explaining that because of scarcity, consumers, producers, and governments must make choices, understanding that everyone’s choice has an opportunity cost; and
  2. comparing and contrasting how traditional, free market, command, and mixed economies decide how to allocate their limited resources.

CE.12

The student will apply social science skills to understand the United States economy by

  1. describing the characteristics of the United States economy, including limited government, private property, profit, markets, consumer sovereignty, and competition;
  2. describing how in a market economy supply and demand determine prices;
  3. describing the types of business organizations and the role of entrepreneurship;
  4. explaining the circular flow that shows how consumers (households), businesses (producers), and markets interact;
  5. explaining how financial institutions channel funds from savers to borrowers; and
  6. analyzing the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy, with emphasis on the impact of technological innovations.

CE.14

The student will apply social science skills to understand personal finance and career opportunities by

  1. identifying talents, interests, and aspirations that influence career choice;
  2. identifying human capital such as attitudes and behaviors that strengthen the individual work ethic and promote career success;
  3. identifying human capital such as abilities, skills, and education and the changing supply of and demand for them in the economy;
  4. examining the impact of technological change and globalization on career opportunities;
  5. describing the importance of education to lifelong personal finances; and
  6. analyzing the financial responsibilities of citizenship, including evaluating common forms of credit, savings, investments, purchases, contractual agreements, warranties, and guarantees.

GOVT.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. planning inquiries by synthesizing information from diverse primary and secondary sources;
  2. analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
  3. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
  4. evaluating critically the quality, accuracy, and validity of information to determine misconceptions, fact and opinion, and bias;
  5. constructing informed, analytic arguments using evidence from multiple sources to introduce and support substantive and significant claims;
  6. explaining how cause-and-effect relationships impact political and economic events;
  7. taking knowledgeable, constructive action, individually and collaboratively, to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze the costs and benefits of a specific choice, considering incentives and possible consequences;
  9. applying civic virtues and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
  10. communicating conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from multiple sources and citing specific sources.

GOVT.7

The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the national government by

  1. examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  2. analyzing the relationships among the three branches in a system of checks and balances and separation of powers; and
  3. investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on the national government.

GOVT.8

The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by

  1. examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  2. examining the structure and powers of local governments (county, city, and town);
  3. analyzing the relationship between state and local governments and the roles of regional authorities, governing boards, and commissions;
  4. investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments; and
  5. evaluating the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decisions of state and local governments by examining historical or contemporary events.

GOVT.9

The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by

  1. defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
  2. examining different perspectives on the role of government;
  3. describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
  4. describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
  5. investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
  6. analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
  7. devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.

GOVT.15

The student will apply social science skills to understand the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by

  1. describing the provision of government goods and services that are not readily produced by the market;
  2. describing government’s establishment and maintenance of the rules and institutions in which markets operate, including the establishment and enforcement of property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, environmental protection, and competition in the marketplace;
  3. investigating and describing the types and purposes of taxation that are used by local, state, and federal governments to pay for services provided by the government;
  4. analyzing how Congress can use fiscal policy to stabilize the economy;
  5. describing the effects of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy on price stability, employment, and the economy; and
  6. evaluating the trade-offs in government decisions.

GOVT.16

The student will apply social science skills to understand that in a democratic republic, thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by

  1. exercising personal character traits such as trustworthiness, responsibility, and honesty;
  2. obeying the law and paying taxes;
  3. serving as a juror;
  4. participating in the political process and voting in local, state, and national elections;
  5. performing public service;
  6. keeping informed about current issues;
  7. respecting differing opinions and the rights of others;
  8. practicing personal and fiscal responsibility;
  9. demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that foster the responsible and respectful use of digital media; and
  10. practicing patriotism.

USI.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship, by

  1. analyzing and interpreting artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in United States history;
  2. analyzing and interpreting geographic information to determine patterns and trends in United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in United States history;
  4. using evidence to draw conclusions and make generalizations;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, and political perspectives in United States history;
  6. determining relationships with multiple causes or effects in United States history;
  7. explaining connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to identify the costs and benefits of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

USII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. analyzing and interpreting artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in United States history;
  2. analyzing and interpreting geographic information to determine patterns and trends in United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in United States history;
  4. using evidence to draw conclusions and make generalizations;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, and political perspectives in United States history;
  6. determining relationships with multiple causes or effects in United States history;
  7. explaining connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

VUS.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in Virginia and United States history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in Virginia and United States history;
  4. constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and ethical use of material and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

VUS.8

The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by

  1. explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians;
  2. analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities;
  3. examining the contributions of new immigrants and evaluating the challenges they faced, including anti-immigration legislation;
  4. analyzing the impact of prejudice and discrimination, including “Jim Crow” laws, the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, and the practice of eugenics in Virginia;
  5. evaluating and explaining the social and cultural impact of industrialization, including rapid urbanization; and
  6. evaluating and explaining the economic outcomes and the political, cultural, and social developments of the Progressive Movement and the impact of its legislation.

VUS.14

The student will apply social science skills to understand political and social conditions in the United States during the early twenty-first century by

  1. assessing the development of and changes in domestic policies, with emphasis on the impact of the role the United States Supreme Court played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;
  2. evaluating and explaining the changes in foreign policies and the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism, with emphasis on the American response to 9/11 (September 11, 2001);
  3. evaluating the evolving and changing role of government, including its role in the American economy; and
  4. explaining scientific and technological changes and evaluating their impact on American culture

WG.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about the world’s countries, cities, and environments;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world regions;
  3. creating, comparing, and interpreting maps, charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of world regions;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. using maps and other visual images to compare and contrast historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives;
  6. explaining indirect cause-and-effect relationships to understand geospatial connections;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

WG.2

The student will analyze how physical and ecological processes shape Earth’s surface by

  1. explaining regional climatic patterns and weather phenomena and their effects on people and places;
  2. describing how humans influence the environment and are influenced by it; and
  3. explaining how technology affects one's ability to modify the environment and adapt to it.

WG.7

The student will analyze the characteristics of the European region by

  1. identifying and analyzing the location of major geographic regions and major cities on maps and globes;
  2. describing major physical and environmental features;
  3. explaining important economic characteristics; and
  4. recognizing cultural influences and landscapes.

WHI.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in world history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in world history;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in world history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impacted people, places, and events in world history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizens and ethical use of materials and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

WHII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

  1. synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events and life in world history;
  2. using geographic information to determine patterns and trends in world history;
  3. interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in world history;
  4. evaluating sources for accuracy, credibility, bias, and propaganda;
  5. comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in world history;
  6. explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impacted people, places, and events in world history;
  7. analyzing multiple connections across time and place;
  8. using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made;
  9. identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizens and ethical use of materials and intellectual property; and
  10. investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

WHII.14

The student will apply social science skills to understand the global changes during the early twenty-first century by

  1. identifying contemporary political issues, with emphasis on migrations of refugees and others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact of technology, including the role of social media and chemical and biological technologies;
  2. assessing the link between economic and political freedom;
  3. describing economic interdependence, including the rise of multinational corporations, international organizations, and trade agreements; and
  4. analyzing the increasing impact of terrorism.

Mathematics

A.1

The student will
  1. represent verbal quantitative situations algebraically; and
  2. evaluate algebraic expressions for given replacement values of the variables.

Science

BIO.8

The student will investigate and understand dynamic equilibria within populations, communities, and ecosystems. Key concepts include
  1. interactions within and among populations, including carrying capacities, limiting factors, and growth curves;
  2. nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems;
  3. succession patterns in ecosystems;
  4. the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems; and
  5. analysis of the flora, fauna, and microorganisms of Virginia ecosystems.

CH.1

The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include
  1. designated laboratory techniques;
  2. safe use of chemicals and equipment;
  3. proper response to emergency situations;
  4. manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
  5. accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
  6. mathematical and procedural error analysis;
  7. mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
  8. use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
  9. construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
  10. the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.

ES.1

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which
  1. volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;
  2. technologies including computers, probeware, and geospatial technologies are used to collect, analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;
  3. scales, diagrams, charts, graphs, tables, imagery, models, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;
  4. maps and globes are read and interpreted, including location by latitude and longitude;
  5. variables are manipulated with repeated trials; and
  6. current applications are used to reinforce Earth science concepts.

ES.8

The student will investigate and understand how freshwater resources are influenced by geologic processes and the activities of humans. Key concepts include
  1. processes of soil development;
  2. development of karst topography;
  3. relationships between groundwater zones, including saturated and unsaturated zones, and the water table;
  4. identification of sources of fresh water, including rivers, springs, and aquifers, with reference to the hydrologic cycle;
  5. dependence on freshwater resources and the effects of human usage on water quality; and
  6. identification of the major watershed systems in Virginia, including the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

PH.11

The student will investigate and understand how to diagram, construct, and analyze basic electrical circuits and explain the function of various circuit components. Key concepts include
  1. Ohm’s law;
  2. series, parallel, and combined circuits;
  3. electrical power; and
  4. alternating and direct currents.