Leadership Development Expectations: High School
The Virginia Board of Education has approved student expectations for leadership development that, while not mandated for all students, are available for integration into curriculum from kindergarten through grade 12. The middle and high school expectations are reinforced in a variety of career and technical education courses. For more information about the leadership initiative, see http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/leadership/leadership_curriculum.pdf.
Developing Knowledge of Self and Others
HS.1 The student will evaluate his or her own self-image.
- Compare one's own interests, values, and skills with those of selected effective leaders.
- Evaluate one's own desire for leadership roles in the local, state, national, and world communities.
- Define ways to capitalize on individual strengths and improve areas of personal weakness.
HS.2 The student will evaluate his or her own behaviors.
- Recognize the ongoing benefits of self-analysis.
- Evaluate one's own decisions and actions in terms of short- and long-term consequences.
- Evaluate one's own behaviors in terms of their positive or negative effects on others.
HS.3 The student will use knowledge of others to improve one's leadership skills.
- Create strategies to utilize the strengths and diminish the limitations of group members.
- Demonstrate ways to organize and delegate responsibilities.
- Encourage ideas, perspectives, and contributions of all group members.
- Use leadership skills to encourage cooperation and collaboration among groups with different needs and concerns.
HS.4 The student will analyze the characteristics of leaders.
- Identify and discuss effective leadership qualities, such as integrity and wisdom (in addition to setting of limits, tolerance, self-reliance, initiative, charisma, competence, honesty, care others, civility, fairness, responsibility, courage, and reliability).
- Explain how leadership traits apply to many aspects of life, such as economic and political systems, scientific discoveries, mathematical reasoning, and artistic endeavors.
- Examine leadership theories that explore different styles/types of leadership.
- Explore philosophical concepts associated with leadership, such as virtue and justice.
HS.5 The student will analyze the complex relationship between the leader and the follower.
- Critically analyze situations in which followers become leaders.
- Analyze and understand the dynamic relationship between the leader and the follower.
- Evaluate the risks and consequences of civil disobedience.
HS.6 The student will evaluate the role of context in the process of leadership.
- Analyze the influence of different contexts on leadership, such as gender, ethnicity, political affiliation, religion, and socio-economics.
- Understand that as contexts change, leaders may become followers, and followers may become leaders.
- Evaluate the effects of changing situations upon leadership roles in the family, classroom, school, community, state, nation, and world.
Developing Leadership Skills and Practices
HS.7 The student will communicate effectively in pairs, small groups, teams, and large groups.
- Suspend judgment until all ideas are expressed.
- Refine interpretation and synthesis of ideas.
- Present personal ideas as well as those of others in a clear, concise, and effective manner.
- Balance personal expression with others' contributions.
- Distinguish between fact and opinion.
- Work toward consensus in heterogeneous groups.
- Facilitate the mediation of conflict.
- Motivate team members individually and collectively to collaborate to achieve a common purpose.
HS.8 The student will analyze and refine decision-making skills.
- Take the lead in implementing, monitoring progress toward, and evaluating solutions.
- Support group decisions.
- Adjust group decisions according to changes within or outside the group.
- Refine skills in parliamentary procedure to facilitate meetings or discussions.
HS.9 The student will evaluate the relationship between personal vision and the group vision.
- Present one's personal vision to a group, using persuasive techniques.
- Compare one's personal vision with that of a group.
- Recognize the necessity for compromise in various leadership situations.
- Motivate others to act according to the group's vision.
Practicing Leadership through Service
HS.10 The student will appraise communities and community needs.
- Evaluate the needs of communities within the school, locality, state, nation, and world.
- Demonstrate that good citizens strengthen a community through tolerance of ideas and respect for the freedoms and civil rights of others.
- Justify the priorities by which needs are addressed in a community.
HS.11 The student will evaluate the roles and responsibilities of citizenship.
- Demonstrate that citizenship requires gathering information, making informed choices, and acting responsibly.
- Devise ways to assume active roles in the class, school, locality, state, nation, and world, such as volunteering additional duties, participating on a committee, and leading a group.
HS.12 The student will evaluate the concept of stewardship.
- Debate methods that leaders may use to take care of and preserve their school, local, state, national, and world communities.
- Explain ways in which one becomes vested in the community and its resources.
HS.13 The student will practice leadership through service in a variety of communities.
- Justify decisions in situations where community needs are more important than individual benefits.
- Demonstrate altruistic behavior.
- Encourage others to volunteer for community service.