the latitude and longitude of the central point in the lower left or right corner of the map
a map key
a compass rose showing cardinal and ordinal directions
roads, rivers, lakes, mountain peaks and other significant locations
symbols to make locations easier to find (e.g., label mountain peaks with a triangle, roads with dotted lines, listing symbols in the map key)
drawing a contour line for the lowest elevation level and trace the shape of the land at that elevation level
recording the elevation next to the contour line and drawing more contour lines for higher elevation levels, labeling the intervals, ensuring that the maximum elevations are at mountain tops, plateaus and other high points, and determining contour line intervals.
Why are topographic maps important, and how are they used?
Why is understanding the terrain and changes in elevation important in environmental management?
What are some common symbols used to represent features on topographic maps, and how are they depicted?