Evaluate the physical and chemical properties of soil.
DefinitionEvaluation should include the description of
- soil texture and its importance, using the soil triangle and mechanical analysis and/or the ribbon or feel test
- proportion of sand, silt, and clay
- water-holding capacity and aeration
- effect of particle size
- specific surface area
- soil pores
- soil permeability and related properties
- soil color
- soil structure and formation
- soil consistency, compaction, and tilth
- soil bulk density
- cation exchange capacity (CEC)
- organic matter
- carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N).
- What are the soil particles/separates, from smallest to largest?
- What is a soil survey?
- What is soil classification? Why is it important to classify soil? What are the USDA’s six levels of soil classes? What are the twelve soil orders?
- What are the land capability classes and why are they important?
- How can soil color be utilized as an indicator of soil conditions?
- What is the Munsell system?
- What are soil aggregates, peds, and clods and how do they affect soil structure, function, and fertility?
- Why do soils with a pH below 6 result in an increase in aluminum?
- Why is this information important?
- How is a soil triangle used?
- How is the ribbon method used?
- What is the purpose of determining soil texture and soil properties?
- How does soil texture affect its fertility?
Related Standards of Learning
The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
- Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
- Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
- Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
- Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
- Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
- Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
- Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
- Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.
The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).
The student will investigate and understand how freshwater resources are influenced by geologic processes and the activities of humans. Key concepts include
- processes of soil development;
- development of karst topography;
- relationships between groundwater zones, including saturated and unsaturated zones, and the water table;
- identification of sources of fresh water, including rivers, springs, and aquifers, with reference to the hydrologic cycle;
- dependence on freshwater resources and the effects of human usage on water quality; and
- identification of the major watershed systems in Virginia, including the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.