# CTE Resource Center - Verso - Agricultural Production Technology Task 869088624

CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

Describe the soil-formation process and components of soil.

Definition

Description should include
  • defining soil
  • discussing the importance of soil
  • explaining soil-forming factors (e.g., physical weathering, chemical weathering, biological weathering, parent material, climate, organisms, topography, time)
  • exploring soil origins (e.g., alluvial deposits, colluvial deposits, eolian deposits, marine deposits, lake deposits, volcanic deposits, Great Plains material, glacial drift, organic deposits)
  • explaining related terms and concepts (e.g., micronutrients, macronutrients, minerals, sand, silt, clay, organic matter, pore space, bedrock, humus, topsoil, weathering, soil profile, soil horizons, subsoil).

Process/Skill Questions

  • What is pedology?
  • What are the five soil-formation factors and their effects on soil formation?
  • What could be considered the sixth soil-formation factor?
  • How is the material content of soil determined?
  • What natural processes create soil?
  • How does the composition of soil affect its fertility?
  • How is soil formation influenced by organisms such as plants, micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi), burrowing insects, animals, and humans?
  • What is a loam?

Related Standards of Learning

English

10.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms, to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

10.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
  1. Analyze text features and organizational patterns to evaluate the meaning of texts.
  2. Recognize an author’s intended audience and purpose for writing.
  3. Skim materials to develop an overview and locate information.
  4. Compare and contrast informational texts for intent and content.
  5. Interpret and use data and information in maps, charts, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
  6. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support as evidence.
  7. Analyze and synthesize information in order to solve problems, answer questions, and generate new knowledge.
  8. Analyze ideas within and between selections providing textual evidence.
  9. Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize ideas, while maintaining meaning and a logical sequence of events, within and between texts.
  10. Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension.

10.8

The student will find, evaluate, and select credible resources to create a research product.
  1. Verify the accuracy, validity, and usefulness of information.
  2. Analyze information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, and point of view or bias.
  3. Evaluate and select evidence from a variety of sources to introduce counter claims and to support claims.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

11.3

The student will apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, and figurative language to extend vocabulary development in authentic texts.
  1. Use structural analysis of roots, affixes, synonyms, and antonyms to understand complex words.
  2. Use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of words and phrases.
  3. Discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotation.
  4. Explain the meaning of common idioms.
  5. Explain the meaning of literary and classical allusions and figurative language in text.
  6. Extend general and cross-curricular vocabulary through speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

11.5

The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate a variety of nonfiction texts including employment documents and technical writing.
  1. Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
  2. Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
  3. Analyze technical writing for clarity.
  4. Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
  5. Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
  6. Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
  7. Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
  8. Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
  9. Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).

11.8

The student will analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and organize information from a variety of credible resources to produce a research product.
  1. Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
  2. Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
  3. Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
  4. Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
  5. Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
  6. Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.

Science

ES.8

The student will investigate and understand how freshwater resources are influenced by geologic processes and the activities of humans. Key concepts include
  1. processes of soil development;
  2. development of karst topography;
  3. relationships between groundwater zones, including saturated and unsaturated zones, and the water table;
  4. identification of sources of fresh water, including rivers, springs, and aquifers, with reference to the hydrologic cycle;
  5. dependence on freshwater resources and the effects of human usage on water quality; and
  6. identification of the major watershed systems in Virginia, including the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.