Leadership Development Expectations: Middle School
The Virginia Board of Education has approved student expectations for leadership development that, while not mandated for all students, are available for integration into curriculum from kindergarten through grade 12. The middle school expectations are reinforced in a variety of career and technical education courses. For more information about the leadership initiative, see http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/leadership/leadership_curriculum.pdf.
MS.1 The student will explain elements of his or her own self-image.
- Investigate ways in which peers can influence self-image, such as through fashion and social activities.
- Explore personal interests, values, and skills.
- Examine effects of positive or negative self-image on relationships with others.
MS.2 The student will identify ways in which his or her behaviors influence others.
- Identify influences on one's own ideas and behaviors, such as family, friends, and media.
- Identify one's own attitudes and biases toward others, such as admiration or jealousy.
MS.3 The student will identify the interests, values, styles, and behaviors of others.
- Consider the effects of gender, ethnicity, customs, and traditions on the interests, values, styles, and behaviors of others.
- Recognize contributions of people from different backgrounds and experiences.
- Create strategies to integrate new members into a group.
MS.4 The student will examine the characteristics of leaders.
- Identify and discuss effective leadership qualities, such as setting of limits, tolerance, self-reliance, initiative, charisma, and competence (in addition to honesty, care for others, civility, fairness, responsibility, courage, and reliability).
- Analyze the effectiveness of leaders according to the traits they demonstrate.
MS.5 The student will understand that the roles and actions of the follower fluctuate.
- Discuss the loyalties of followers and where they place their support.
- Learn when and how to question leadership respectfully.
- Understand the importance and need to act sometimes as a follower for the good of the group.
- Identify situations in which assuming a leadership role is appropriate.
- Discuss the concept of civil disobedience.
MS.6 The student will analyze the role of context in the process of leadership.
- Evaluate the roles of leaders in the family, school, community, state, and nation; and in distinct ethnic groups and different world cultures.
- Understand that as contexts change, the student's role as follower or leader may change.
- Discuss the effects of changing situations upon leadership roles in the family, school, community, state, and nation.
MS.7 The student will communicate effectively in pairs, small groups, teams, and large groups.
- Analyze and interpret purpose, meaning, and expression of feeling within a variety of situations.
- Examine one's own ideas and feelings in relation to those of others.
- Use effective written, verbal, and nonverbal skills to present information.
- Work toward consensus in groups.
- Provide and respond positively to constructive criticism.
- Demonstrate team-building skills that promote effective communication and project completion.
MS.8 The student will transfer decision-making skills to new tasks.
- Evaluate potential outcomes of a decision.
- Consider advice from others when making decisions.
- Generate objectives and strategies to make effective decisions.
- Monitor and evaluate progress toward accomplishing objectives.
- Define and use parliamentary procedure to facilitate decision making.
MS.9 The student will express a personal vision.
- Define vision.
- Relate personal goals to one's own vision.
- Recognize the risks involved in presenting one's personal vision.
- Consider the contributions of others to one's own vision.
MS.10 The student will differentiate among communities and community needs.
- Compare and contrast the needs of communities within the school, locality, state, and nation.
- Demonstrate that good citizens predict some community needs based on the idea that group acceptance and belonging are important to all people.
- Prioritize the needs of a community in terms of opportunities, benefits, and costs.
MS.11 The student will compare and contrast the role of citizens in different communities.
- Summarize the roles and responsibilities citizens have in different communities within the school, locality, state, and nation.
- Select active roles to assume in the class, school, locality, state, and nation.
MS.12 The student will apply the concept of stewardship.
- Define stewardship.
- Devise plans to take care of and preserve the school, local, state, and national communities.
- Illustrate examples of ways in which good leaders protect their community and its resources.
MS.13 The student will practice leadership through service in a variety of communities.
- Decide when community needs are more important than individual benefits.
- Illustrate altruistic behavior.
- Examine the idea that good leaders receive intrinsic reward by volunteering for community service.